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Chronisch-entzündliche Darmerkrankungen (CED)

  • M. Friedt
  • C. P. Braegger
  • R. Behrens

Auszug

Chronisch entzündliche Darmerkrankungen (CED) sind idiopathische Krankheiten des Gastrointestinaltrakts, die durch einen chronisch rezidivierenden Verlauf des Entzündungsprozesses gekennzeichnet sind. Der M. Crohn und die Colitis ulcerosa sind die häufigsten und am besten definierten Formen der CED. Die Entzündung bei M. Crohn kann im Gegensatz zur Colitis ulcerosa den gesamten Gastrointestinaltrakt von oral bis perianal betreffen. Überwiegend sind jedoch der distale Dünndarm (daher auch der ältere Begriff »lleitis terminalis«) und der proximale Dickarm betroffen. Bereits im Jahr 1761 beschrieb der italienische Arzt und Pathologe Giovanni Battista Morgagni einen Patienten mit einer Darmentzündung, die dem Bild eines M. Crohn entsprach. Erst nach Entdeckung des Mycobacterium tuberculosis durch Koch im Jahr 1882 erfolgte die Beschreibung einer ileozökalen Entzündung, die der intestinalen Tuberkulose sehr ähnelte, allerdings ohne Nachweis von säurefesten Stäbchenbakterien. Im Jahr 1932 erfolgte die wegweisende Arbeit zur »terminal ileitis« durch Burrill B. Crohn, Leon Ginzburg und Gordon Oppenheimer. Es wurde bald klar, dass es sich nicht nur um eine Entzündung des terminalen Ileums handelte, sodass der Begriff »terminal ileitis« fallen gelassen und durch die Bezeichnung » M. Crohn« ersetzt wurde.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Friedt
    • 1
  • C. P. Braegger
    • 1
  • R. Behrens
    • 2
  1. 1.Abteilung Gastroenterologie und Ernährung, KinderspitalUniversitätsklinik ZürichZürichSchweiz
  2. 2.Klinik für Kinder und JugendlicheKlinikum Nürnberg SüdNürnberg

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