A Knowledge Management Optimization Problem Using Marginal Utility in a Metric Space with Conceptual Graphs

  • Jeffrey A. Schiffel
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4604)


Knowledge management has emerged as a field blending a systems approach with methods drawn from organizational management and learning. In contrast, knowledge representation, a branch of artificial intelligence, is grounded in formal methods. Research in the separate behavioral and the structural disciplines - knowledge management and knowledge engineering - have not traditionally cross-pollinated, preventing the development of many practical uses. Organization managers lack guidance in where to direct improvement efforts targeted at specific groups of knowledge workers. Demonstrated here is Knowledge Improvement Measurement System, an optimization solution that employs marginal utility theory in a metric space, and formal reasoning via software agents realized in conceptual graphs. This allows for repeated evaluation of knowledge improvement measurements. The KIMS method can measure activities that organize and encourage knowledge sharing to achieve competitive advantage. The solution takes into account the body of knowledge related to human understanding and learning, and formal methods of knowledge organization.


Knowledge Management Knowledge Representation Tacit Knowledge Marginal Utility Intellectual Capital 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Allee, V,: Three levels of knowledge management. Walnut Creek, CA: Integral Performance Group. Updated November 17, 2001 (2001) (retrieved January 3, 2002), from
  2. 2.
    Bateson, G.: Mind and nature: A necessary unity, 1st edn. Dutton, New York (1979)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatt, G.: Knowledge management in organizations: Examining the interaction between technologies, techniques, and people. Journal of Knowledge Management 5(1), 68–75 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bovel, D., Martha, J.: From supply chain to value net. Journal of Business Strategy 21(4), 24–28 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brachman, R., Levesque, H.: Knowledge representation and reasoning. Elsevier, Inc., san Francisco, CA (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown, J.S., Duguid, P.: The Social life of information. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burgelman, R.: A model of the interaction of strategic behavior, corporate context, and the concept of strategy. The Academy of Management Review 8(1), 61–70 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chase, R.: Knowledge management benchmarks. Journal of Knowledge Management 1(1), 83–92 (1997)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conner, K., Prahalad, C.: A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus opportunism. Organization Science 7(5), 477–501 (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Corbett, D.: Reasoning and unification over conceptual graphs. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cyert, R.M., March, J.G.: A behavioral theory of the firm, 2nd edn. Blackwell Business (Prentice-Hall), Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1992)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Long, D., Seeman, P.: Confronting conceptual confusion and conflict in knowledge management. Organizational Dynamics 29(1), 16–23 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delugach, H.S.: CharGer (Version 3.5b1) [conceptual graph software tool]. Huntsville, AL: University of Alabama - Huntsville (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doyle, J.: (June 2-5, 2006) On mechanisation of thought processes. In: 10th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Lake District, UK (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Drucker, P.: The age of social transformation. The Atlantic Monthly 274, 53–86 (1994)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Esposito, F., Fanizzi, S., Basile, T., Di Mauro, N.: Multistrategy operators for relational learning and thier cooperation. Fundamenta Informaticae 69(4), 389–409 (2006)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fagin, R.: Combining fuzzy information from multiple systems. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 58(1), 83–99 (1999)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gardenfors, P.: Conceptual spaces: The geometry of thought. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guns, W., Valikangas, L.: Rethinking knowledge work: Creating value through idiosyncratic knowledge (Business Intelligence Program, D98-2138). Menlo Park, CA: SRI Consulting (1998)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hofstede, G.: Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. McGraw-Hill, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Howarth, P., Redgrave, F.: Metrology in short, 2nd edn. EUROMET publication (2003),
  22. 22.
    Jonassen, D.: Computers as mindtools for schools, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Juran, J.M., Gryna, F.: Quality planning and analysis, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaner, M., Karni, R.: A capability maturity model for knowledge-based decisionmaking. Information Knowledge Systems Management 4(4), 225–252 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kayed, A., Colomb, R.: (January 28 - February 2, 2002) Using ontologies to index conceptual structures for tendering automation. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Australasian Conference on DatabaseTechnologies, Melbourne, Australia (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Keeney, R.: Using values in operations research. Operations Research 42(5), 793–814 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kelley, J.: Prospecting for knowledge. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering 16(4), 24–27 (2003)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kreiner, K.: Tacit knowledge management: the role of artifacts. Journal of Knowledge Management 6(2), 112–123 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., Nonaka, I.: Enabling knowledge creation: How to unlock the mystery of tacit knowledge and release the power of innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., Aben, M.: Making the most of your company’s knowledge: A strategic framework. Long Range Planning 34(4), 421–439 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marakas, G.: Decision support systems in the twenty-first century. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1999)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McElroy, M.: Double-loop knowledge management. Systems Thinker 10(8), 1–5 (1999a)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    McElroy, M.: The second generation of knowledge management. Knowledge Management Magazine, 86–88 (1999b)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McElroy, M.: The new knowledge management: Complexity, learning, and sustainable innovation. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann, USA (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Microsoft Corp. Microsoft Word 2000 (Version 9.0.4402 SR-1) [Word processing software]. Bellevue, WA: Microsoft Corp. (1999)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morris, M.: Intangible assets and their role in corporate value (CFA Report). Irving, TX: Value, Inc. (2001)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nguyen, P., Corbett, D.: A basic mathematical framework for conceptual graphs. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 18(2), 261–271 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    O’Leary, D.: Enterprise knowledge management. Computer 31(3), 54–61 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Parker, K.: The esthetic grounding of ordered thought. In: 12th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Huntsville, AL (July 19-23, 2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Polanyi, M.: The logic of tacit inference. In: Grene, M. (ed.) Knowing and being, pp. 138–158. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1969)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Porter, M.: Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. The Free Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Price, G.: Terms in transition: Software testing terminology. Crosstalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah (July 1994) (retrieved November 22, 2005), from
  43. 43.
    Qureshi, B.R., Hlupic, V.: Value creation from intellectual capital: Convergence of knowledge management and collaboration in the intellectual bandwidth model. Group Decision and Negotiation 15(3), 197–220 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Robinson, G., Kleiner, B.: How to measure an organization’s intellectual capital. Managerial Auditing Journal 11(8), 36–39 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saloner, G., Shepard, A., Podolny, J.: Strategic management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (2001)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schrage, M.: Serious play: How the world’s best companies simulate to innovate. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (2000)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schwartz, P.: The art of the long view: Paths to strategic insight for yourself and your company. Currency Doubleday, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Smith, G.: Corporate valuation: A business and professional guide. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Smith, P.: An introduction to knowledge engineering. International Thomson Computer Press, London (1996)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sowa, J.: Conceptual structures: Information processing in mind and machine. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA (1984)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sowa, J.: Knowledge representation: logical, philosophical, and computational foundations. Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA (2000)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stahle, P., Hong, J.: Dynamic intellectual capital in global rapidly changing industries. Journal of Knowledge Management, 177–189 (2002)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Strassmann, P.: The politics of information management. The Information Economics Press, New Canaan, CT (1995)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Swanson, R.: Analysis for improving performance. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco (1994)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Turban, E., Aronson, J.: Decision support systems and intelligent systems. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (2001)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Uschold, M.: Keynote address: Ontologies, ontologies everywhere – But who knows what to think? In: 9th International Protégé Conference, Stanford, CA (July 23-26, 2006), retrieved from the author as pdf from
  57. 57.
    van der Heijden, K.: Scenarios: The art of strategic conversation. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    van der Heijden, K.: Scenarios, strategies and the strategy process. Breukelen, The Netherlands: Centre for Organisational Learning and Change, Nijenrode University (2007) Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Villegas, R.: Knowledge management white paper. Indianapolis, IN: New Century Marketing Concepts (2000)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weisstein, E.: Minkowski metric. From mathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource (updated May 9, 2005) (retrieved May 9, 2005), from
  61. 61.
    Whittington, R.: What is strategy - And does it matter. Routledge, London (1993)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Widdows, D.: Geometry and meaning. CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wiig, K.: Knowledge management: An introduction and perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management 1(1), 6–14 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey A. Schiffel
    • 1
  1. 1.The Boeing Company, Wichita, KS 67277USA

Personalised recommendations