Invisible Graffiti on Your Buildings: Blind and Squaring-Proof Watermarking of Geographical Databases

  • Julien Lafaye
  • Jean Béguec
  • David Gross-Amblard
  • Anne Ruas
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4605)


Due to the ease of digital copy, watermarking is crucial to protect the intellectual property of rights owners. We propose an effective watermarking method for vectorial geographical databases, with the focus on the buildings layer. Embedded watermarks survive common geographical filters, including the essential squaring and simplification transformations, as well as deliberate removal attempts, e.g. by noise addition, cropping or over-watermarking. Robustness against the squaring transformation is not adressed by existing approaches. The impact on the quality of the datasets, defined as a composition of point accuracy and angular quality, is assessed through an extensive series of experiments. Our method is based on a quantization of the distance between the centroid of the building and its extremal vertex according to its orientation.


Quality Loss Quantization Step Malicious User Watermark Method Minimum Bound Rectangle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    GéoPortail (visited 03/20/2007),
  2. 2.
    Agrawal, R., Haas, P.J., Kiernan, J.: Watermarking relational data: framework, algorithms and analysis. VLDB J. 12(2), 157–169 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Airault, S.: De la base de données à la carte: une approche globale pour l’équarrissage de bâtiments (in french). Revue Internationale de Géomatique 6(2-3), 203–217 (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Douglas, D., Peucker, T.: Algorithms for the reduction of the number of points required for represent a digitized line or its caricature. Canadian Cartographer 10(2), 112–122 (1973)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duchêne, C., Bard, S., Barillot, X., Ruas, A., Trevisan, J., Holzapfel, F.: Quantitative and qualitative description of building orientation. In: Fifth workshop on progress in automated map generalisation, ICA, commission on map generalisation (April 2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoeffding, W.: Probability inequalities for sums of bounded random variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association 58(301), 13–30 (1963)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huber, W.A.: Gis and stegranography - part 3: Vector stegranography (April 2002),
  8. 8.
    Institut Géographique National. BD TOPO - descriptif technique (in french) (December 2002),
  9. 9.
    Kang, H.I., Kim, K.I., Cho, J.U.: A vector watermarking using the generalized square mask. Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 234–236 (April 2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Katzenbeisser, S., Petitcolas, F.A.P.: Information hiding, techniques for steganography and digital watermarking. Artech house (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lafaye, J.: Watermarking plugin for openjump (2007),
  12. 12.
    Lafaye, J., Béguec, J., Gross-Amblard, D., Ruas, A.: Blind watermarking of geographical databases by polygon expansion. Technical Report hal-00137956, CNRS-CCSD HAL (March 2007), Available online
  13. 13.
    Lafaye, J., Gross-Amblard, D.: Xml streams watermarking. In: 20th Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Working Conference on Data and Applications Security (DBSEC 2006) (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lafaye, J., Gross-Amblard, D., Guerrouani, M., Constantin, C.: Watermill: an optimized fingerprinting system for databases under constraints. submitted to TKDE  (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lopez Vazquez, C.M.: Method of inserting hidden data into digital archives comprising polygons and detection methods, US Patent no. 20030208679 (November 2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Niu, X., Shao, C., Wang, X.: A survey of digital vector map watermarking. International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control 2(6) (December 2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ohbuchi, R., Ueda, R., Endoh, S.: Robust watermarking of vector digital maps. In: Multimedia and Expo, 2002. In: ICME 2002, vol. 1, pp. 577–580 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ohbuchi, R., Ueda, H., Endoh, S.: Watermarking 2D vector maps in the mesh-spectral domain. In: Shape Modeling International, pp. 216–228. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park, K.T., Kim, K.I., Kang, H.I., Han, S.-S.: Digital geographical map watermarking using polyline interpolation. In: Chen, Y.-C., Chang, L.-W., Hsu, C.-T. (eds.) PCM 2002. LNCS, vol. 2532, pp. 58–65. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sakamoto, M., Matsuura, Y., Takashima, Y.: A scheme of digital watermarking for geographical map data. In: Symposium on cryptography and information security, Okinawa, Japan (January 2000)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schulz, G., Voigt, M.: A high capacity watermarking system for digital maps. In: MM&Sec 2004. Proceedings of the 2004 workshop on Multimedia and security, Magdeburg, Germany, pp. 180–186. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). Specifications for Chart Content and Display Aspects of ECDIS. IHO, 5th edn. (December 2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Voigt, M., Busch, C.: Watermarking 2d-vector data for geographical information systems. In: SPIE, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Content, vol. 4675, pp. 621–628 (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Voigt, M., Busch, C.: Feature-based watermarking of 2d vector data. In: SPIE, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Content, vol. 5020, pp. 359–366 (June 2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julien Lafaye
    • 1
  • Jean Béguec
    • 1
    • 3
  • David Gross-Amblard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anne Ruas
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratoire CEDRIC, Spécialité Informatique – CC 432, Conservatoire national, des arts & métiers, 292 rue Saint Martin, 75141 PARIS Cedex 3France
  2. 2.Laboratoire LE2I, Université de Bourgogne, Faculté des Sciences Mirande, Aile de l’ingénieur, BP 47870 21078 DIJON CedexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire COGIT, Institut Géographique National (IGN), 2/4 Avenue Pasteur 94 165 SAINT MANDE CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations