Advertisement

The Development of a Cognitive Work Analysis Tool

  • Daniel P. Jenkins
  • Neville A. Stanton
  • Paul M. Salmon
  • Guy H. Walker
  • Mark S. Young
  • Ian Whitworth
  • Andy Farmilo
  • Geoffrey Hone
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4562)

Abstract

Due to their complexity, systems used within Network Centric Warfare and Command and Control are notoriously difficult to predict. These systems are often influenced by an ever increasing number of dynamic constraints. This dynamic instability causes problems for many traditional normative Human Factors techniques. Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is a formative process that focuses on these constraints rather than prescriptive methods of working; this constraint based approach allows the model to handle the unexpected and unanticipated events common in network-centric warfare. This paper presents the development of a Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) software tool. The tool has two main purposes. The primary purpose is to assist the user in developing the large number of graphical representations that support the iterative design process. The secondary purpose is to explain CWA to novices and systematically guide them through the analysis process. The paper provides a brief introduction to CWA along with a description of the tool and its current capabilities.

Keywords

Cognitive Work Analysis Tools Software Development Training 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahlstrom, U.: Work domain analysis for air traffic controller weather displays. Journal of Safety Research 36, 159–169 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bisantz, A.M., Roth, E., Brickman, B., Gosbee, L.L., Hettinger, L., McKinney, J.: Integrating cognitive analyses in a large-scale system design process. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58, 177–206 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burns, C.M., Hajdukiewicz, J.R.: Ecological Interface Design. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cummings, M.L.: Can CWA inform the design of networked intelligent systems. In: Moving Autonomy Forward Conference 2006, Lincoln, UK (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fidel, R., Pejtersen, A.M.: Cognitive Work Analysis. In: Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., McKechnie, E.F. (eds.) Theories of information behavior: A researcher’s guide, Information Today, Medford, NJ (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hajdukiewicz, J.R.: Development of a structured approach for patient monitoring in the operating room. Masters Thesis. University of Toronto (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Higgins, P.G.: Extending cognitive work analysis to manufacturing scheduling. In: Proceedings of OzCHI 1998, November 30-December 4, pp. 236–243 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jenkins, D.P., Stanton, N.A., Salmon, P.M, Walker, G.H., Young, M.S.: Cognitive Work Analysis of a Sensor to Effecter System: Implications for Network Structures. In: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter Meeting 2006 (in Press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lintern, G., Cone, S., Schenaker, M., Ehlert, J., Hughes, T.: Asymmetric Adversary Analysis for Intelligent Preparation of the Battlespace (A3-IPB) United States Air Force Research Department Report (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller, A.: A work domain analysis framework for modelling intensive care unit patients. Cognition, Technology and Work 6(4), 207–222 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Naikar, N.: Modelling activity in network-centric operations with cognitive work analysis: Work situations, work functions, decisions, and strategies. In: Bolia, B. (ed.) Supporting decision effectiveness in network-centric operations. Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (in press)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naikar, N.: Beyond interface design: Further applications of cognitive work analysis. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 36, 423–438 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Naikar, N., Lintern, G.: A review of Cognitive Work Analysis: Towards safe, productive, and healthy computer-based work by Vicente, K.J. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12(4), 391–400 (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Naikar, N., Sanderson, P.M.: Work domain analysis for training-system definition. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 9, 271–290 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Naikar, N., Sanderson, P.M.: Evaluating design proposals for complex systems with work domain analysis. Human Factors 43, 529–542 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naikar, N., Saunders, A.: Crossing the boundaries of safe operation: A technical training approach to error management. Cognition Technology and Work. 5, 171–180 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Olsson, G., Lee, P.L.: Effective interfaces for process operators. The. Journal of Process Control 4, 99–107 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Salmon, P.M., Stanton, N.A., Regan, M., Lenne, M., Young, K.: Work domain analysis and road transport: Implications for vehicle design. International Journal of Vehicle Design (in Press)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sanderson, P.M.: Cognitive Work Analysis across the system life-cycle: Achievements, challenges, and prospects in aviation. In: Pfister, P., Edkins, G. (eds.) Aviation Resource Management, vol. 3. Aldershot, UK Ashgate (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vicente, K.J.: Cognitive work analysis: Toward safe, productive, and healthy computer-based work. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel P. Jenkins
    • 1
  • Neville A. Stanton
    • 1
  • Paul M. Salmon
    • 1
  • Guy H. Walker
    • 1
  • Mark S. Young
    • 1
  • Ian Whitworth
    • 2
  • Andy Farmilo
    • 2
  • Geoffrey Hone
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge Middlesex, UB8 3PH 
  2. 2.Department of Information Systems, Cranfield University at the UK Defence Academy, Shrivenham, SN6 8LAUK

Personalised recommendations