Digital Humans for Virtual Assembly Evaluation

  • Dimitris Mavrikios
  • Menelaos Pappas
  • Marios Kotsonis
  • Vassiliki Karabatsou
  • George Chryssolouris
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4561)

Abstract

This paper studies the use of Virtual Reality and Human Simulation for the ergonomic evaluation of manual assembly processes. A virtual environment has been developed to represent the actual workspace where the assembly task took place. Into the virtual workspace, a digital human /mannequin was imported and programmed to simulate the task, in the same manner as it would be done by the actual worker. Based on the posture-based ergonomics analysis, each posture of the digital human has been “translated” into comfort scores, resulting in conclusions, related to the ergonomic efficiency of the process and in the design of the workstation. The conclusions that have been reached identify the critical points, during the assembly task, and lead to the necessary re-design actions in order for the worker’s fatigue as well as the task’s execution time to be reduced. A real-life assembly task of a commercial refrigerator has been implemented in order for the capabilities of the proposed process design evaluation method to be demonstrated.

Keywords

Virtual Reality Digital Humans Virtual Assembly Process Design Evaluation Ergonomics Analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chryssolouris, G.: Manufacturing Systems: Theory and Practice, 2nd edn. Springer, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chryssolouris, G., Karabatsou, V., Kapetanaki, G.: Virtual Reality and Human Simulation for Manufacturing. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Systems 32(6) (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chryssolouris, G., Mavrikios, D., Fragos, D., Karabatsou, V.: A virtual reality-based experimentation environment for the verification of human-related factors in assembly processes. Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing 16(4), 267–276 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chryssolouris, G., Mavrikios, D., Fragos, D., Karabatsou, V., Alexopoulos, K.: A hybrid approach to the verification and analysis of assembly and maintenance processes using Virtual Reality and Digital Mannequin technologies. In: Nee, A.Y.C., Ong, S.K. (eds.) Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Applications in Manufacturing, Springer, London (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feyen, R., Liu, Y., Chaffin, D., Jimmerson, G., Joseph, B.: Computer-aided ergonomics: a case study of incorporating ergonomics analyses into workplace design. Applied Ergonomics Magazine 31(3), 291–300 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gomes deSá, A., Zachmann, G.: Virtual reality as a tool for verification of assembly and maintenance processes. Computers and Graphics 23(3), 389–403 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lu, Y., Shpitalni, M., Gadh, R.: Virtual and Augmented Reality Technologies for Product Realization. Keynote Paper. Annals of the CIRP 48(2), 471–494 (1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ottosson, S.: Virtual reality in the product development process. Journal of Engineering Design 13(2), 159–172 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rajan, V., Sivasubramanian, K., Fernandez, J.E.: Accessibility and ergonomic analysis of assembly product and jig designs. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 23(5-6), 473–487 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sundin, A., Medbo, L.: Computer Visualization and Participatory Ergonomics as Methods in Workplace Design. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing 13(1), 1–17 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allen, C., Karam, K.Z., Le Cam, P., Hill, M., Tindle, T.: Application of virtual reality devices to the quantitative assessment of manual assembly forces in a factory environment. Industrial Electronics. In: Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE IECON 21st International Conference on Control and Instrumentation, vol. 2, pp. 1048–1053 (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gill, S.A., Ruddle, R.A.: Using virtual humans to solve real ergonomic design problems. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Simulation 1998, pp. 223–229 (1998)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carey, E.J., Gallwey, T.J.: Evaluation of human postures with computer aids and virtual workplace designs. International Journal of Production Research 40(4), 825–843 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Looze, M.P., Van Rhijn, J.W., Van Deursen, J., Tuinzaad, G.H., Reijneveld, C.N.: A participatory and integrative approach to improve productivity and ergonomics in assembly. Production Planning & Control 14(2), 174–181 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jayaram, U., Jayaram, S., Shaikh, I., Kim, Y.J., Palmer, C.: Introducing quantitative analysis methods into virtual environments for real-time and continuous ergonomic evaluations. Computers in Industry 57(3), 283–296 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitris Mavrikios
    • 1
  • Menelaos Pappas
    • 1
  • Marios Kotsonis
    • 1
  • Vassiliki Karabatsou
    • 1
  • George Chryssolouris
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Patras 26500Greece

Personalised recommendations