Advertisement

Handling Uni- and Multimodal Threat Cueing with Simultaneous Radio Calls in a Combat Vehicle Setting

  • Otto Carlander
  • Lars Eriksson
  • Per-Anders Oskarsson
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4555)

Abstract

We investigated uni- and multimodal cueing of horizontally distributed threat directions in an experiment requiring each of twelve participants to turn a simulated combat vehicle towards the cued threat as quickly and accurate as possible, while identifying simultaneously presented radio call information. Four display conditions of cued threat directions were investigated; 2D visual, 3D audio, tactile, and combined cueing of 2D visual, 3D audio, and tactile. During the unimodal visual and tactile indications of threat directions an alerting mono sound also was presented. This alerting sound function was naturally present for the unimodal 3D audio and multimodal conditions, with the 3D audio simultaneously alerting for and cueing direction to the threat. The results show no differences between conditions in identification of radio call information. In contrast, the 3D audio generated greater errors in localization of threat direction compared to both 2D visual and multimodal cueing. Reaction times to threats were also slower with both the 3D audio and 2D visual compared to the tactile and the multimodal, respectively. In conclusion, the results might reflect some of the benefits in employing multimodal displays for certain operator environments and tasks.

Keywords

Display technologies Multimodal Combat Vehicle Simulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Carlander, O., Eriksson, L.: Uni- and bimodal threat cueing with vibrotactile and 3D audio technologies in a combat vehicle. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, pp. 16–20. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wickens, C.D., Hollands, J.G.: Engineering psychology and human performance. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spence, C., McDonald, J.: The cross-modal consequences of the exogenous spatial orienting of attention. In: Calvert, G.A., Spence, C., Stein, B.E. (eds.) The handbook of multisensory processes, pp. 3–25. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eimer, M.: Multisensory integration: How visual experience shapes spatial perception. Current biology 14(R), 115–117 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yanagida, Y., Kawato, S., Noma, H., Tetsutani, N., Tomono, A.: A Nose-Tracked, Personal Olfactory Display. In: Proccedings of the Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques 30th Conference, San Diego, CA: SIGGRAPH (July 27-31, 2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eriksson, L., Carlander, O., Borgvall, J., Dahlman, J., Lif, P.: Operator site 2004-2005. Linköping: FOI (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    van Erp, J.B.F., van Veen, H.A.H.C., Jansen, C., Dobbins, T.: Waypoint navigation with a vibrotactile waist belt. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 2(2), 106–117 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGrath, B.J., Estrada, A., Braithwaite, M.G., Raj, A.K., Rupert, A.H.: Tactile situation awareness system flight demonstration final report. Report No. 2004-10, the US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rupert, A.H., Guedry, F.E., Reshke, M.F.: The use of a tactile interface to convey position and motion perceptions. In: Virtual Interfaces: Research and Applications (AGARD CP-478: pp. 21.1–21.5). Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    van Erp, J.B.F., Veltman, J.A., Van Veen, H.A.H.C., Oving, A.B.: Tactile torso display as countermeasure to reduce night vision goggles induced drift. In: Proceedings of NATO RTO Human Factors & Medicine Pan el Symposium on Spatial Disorientation in Military Vehicles: Causes, Consequences and Cures (AC/323[HFM-085]TP/42, pp. 49.1–49.8). Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Research and Technology Organisation (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eriksson, L., van Erp, J., Carlander, O., Levin, B., van Veen, H., Veltman, H.: Vibrotactile and visual threat cueing with high G threat intercept in dynamic flight simulation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, pp. 1547–1551. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wenzel, E., Arruda, M., Kistler, D.J., Wightman, F.L.: Localization using non-individualized head-related transfer functions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94(1), 111–123 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carlander, O., Eriksson, L., Kindström, M.: Horizontal localisation accuracy with COTS and professional 3D audio display technologies. In: Proceedings of the IEA 2006 conference, The Netherlands: International Ergonomics Society (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto Carlander
    • 2
  • Lars Eriksson
    • 1
  • Per-Anders Oskarsson
    • 1
  1. 1.FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Olaus Magnus väg 42, 581 11 LinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Now at Motorola, Inc. IPVSSweden

Personalised recommendations