Serial Hanging Out: Rapid Ethnographic Needs Assessment in Rural Settings

  • Jaspal S. Sandhu
  • P. Altankhuyag
  • D. Amarsaikhan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4550)

Abstract

This paper presents an ethnographic method for assessing user needs in designing for rural settings. “Serial Hanging Out” consists of short-term participant observation with multiple, independent informants. The method is characterized by: (1) its short-term nature, (2) the use of participant observation supported by specific field techniques, and (3) the emphasis on user needs for design. It is discussed in relation to similar methodological work in associated fields. To ground the discussion, the method is presented in the context of ongoing work to develop improved information systems to support rural health workers in Mongolia.

Keywords

participant observation ethnography design qualitative methods user needs rural Mongolia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gilmore, D.: Business: Understanding and Overcoming Resistance to Ethnographic Design Research. Interactions, 9(3) (May 2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wasson, C.: Ethnography in the Field of Design. Human Organization 59(4), 377–388 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hughes, J., Rodden, T., King, V., Anderson, H.: The Role of Ethnography in Interactive Systems Design. ACM Interactions 2(2), 56–65 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rosenthal, S.R., Capper, M.: Ethnographies in the Front End: Designing for Enhanced Customer Experiences. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23, 215–237 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Squires, S., Byrne, B. (eds.): Creating Breakthrough Ideas: The Collaboration of Anthropologists and Designers in the Product Development Industry. Bergin and Garvey, Westport, Connecticut (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mariampolski, H.: Ethnography for Marketers: A Guide to Consumer Immersion. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnould, E.J., Wallendorf, M.: Market-Oriented Ethnography: Interpretation Building and Marketing Strategy Formulation. Journal of Marketing Research 31(4), 484–504 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blomberg, J., Burrell, M., Guest, G.: An Ethnographic Approach To Design. In: Jacko, J.A., Sears, A. (eds.) The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, pp. 964–986. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dourish, P.: Implications for Design. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 541-550 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sommerville, I., Rodden, T., Sawyer, P., Bentley, R., Twidale, M.: Integrating Ethnography into the Requirements Engineering Process. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, San Diego, California, pp. 165–173 (1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Maanen, J.: Tales of the Field. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1988)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Millen, D.R.: Rapid Ethnography: Time Deepening Strategies for HCI Field Research. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, New York City, New York, pp. 280-286 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kujala, S.: User Involvement: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges. Behaviour and Information Technology 22(1), 1–16 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Plowman, T.: Ethnography and Critical Design Practice. In: Laurel, B. (ed.) Design Research: Methods and Perspectives, pp. 30–38. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Agar, M.: The Professional Stranger: An Informal Introduction to Ethnography. Academic Press, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spradley, J.P.: Participant Observation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chambers, R.: The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. World Development 4(7), 953–969 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beebe, J.: Rapid Assessment Process. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, California (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dewalt, K.M., Dewalt, B.R.: Participant Observation. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, California (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sanjek, R.: A Network Method and Its Uses in Urban Ethnography. Human Organization 37(3), 257–268 (1978)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Geertz, C.: Deep Hanging Out. The New York Review of Books 45(16) (October 1998)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K.: Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1998)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sandhu, J.S., Hey, J., Newman, C., Agogino, A.M.: Informal Health and Legal Rights Education in Rural, Agricultural Communities using Mobile Devices. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, pp. 988-992 ( 2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Granderson, J., Sandhu, J.S.: Efficiency and Design of Improved Woodburning Cookstoves in the Guatemalan Highlands. Technical Report Max-05-1, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ebright, J.R., Altantsetseg, T., Oyungerel, R.: Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(12), 1509–1515 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Directorate of Medical Service, Department of Human Resource Development: Survey Report on Training Needs of Bag Feldshers. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (2004)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patton, M.Q.: Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Sage, Newbury Park, California (1990)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pelto, P.J., Pelto, G.H.: Anthropological Research: The Structure of Inquiry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom (1978)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    von Hippel, E.: The Sources of Innovation. Oxford University Press, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R.I., Shaw, L.L.: Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois (1995)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Handwerker, W.P.: Quick Ethnography. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, California (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    LeCompte, M.D., Goetz, J.P.: Problems of Reliability and Validity in Ethnographic Research. Review of Educational Research 52(1), 31–60 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Griffin, A., Hauser, J.R.: The Voice of the Customer. Marketing Science 12(1), 1–27 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Urban, G.L., Hauser, J.R.: Design and Marketing of New Products. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaspal S. Sandhu
    • 1
  • P. Altankhuyag
    • 2
  • D. Amarsaikhan
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Engineering, University of California, BerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Asian Development Bank, Ministry of HealthMongolia
  3. 3.Postgraduate Institute, Health Sciences University of Mongolia 

Personalised recommendations