Determining Recovery Times from Transmembrane Action Potentials and Unipolar Electrograms in Normal Heart Tissue
In this study, we quantitatively analyze some frequently used markers of recovery time, derived from the transmembrane action potentials and from unipolar extracellular electrograms. To this end, we performed 3D numerical simulations by using the anisotropic bidomain model of normal cardiac tissue, coupled with the Luo-Rudy phase I membrane model. We show that the extracellular markers considered are very accurate estimates of (and very well correlated with) the transmembrane action potential markers of the repolarization phase, irrespective of T-wave polarity, repolarization sequence, and transmural distribution of intrinsic properties of the cell membrane.
KeywordsAction Potential Duration Monophasic Action Potential Intracellular Action Potential Transmembrane Action Bidomain Model
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Balay, S., et al.: PETSc Users Manual. ANL TR anl-95/11 - rev. 2.1.5, (2002), http://www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc
- 2.Chen, P.-S., et al.: Epicardial activation and repolarization patterns in patients with right ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 83, 104–118 (1991)Google Scholar
- 7.Franz, M.R.: Monophasic Action Potentials: Bridging Cells to Bedside. Futura Publishing Company, Armonk NY (2000)Google Scholar
- 8.Gepstein, L., Hayam, G., Ben-Haim, S.A.: Activation-recovery coupling in the normal swine endocardium. Circulation 96(11), 4036–4043 (1997)Google Scholar
- 9.Luo, C., Rudy, Y.: A model of the ventricular cardiac action potential: depolarization, repolarization, and their interaction. Circ. Res. 68, 1501–1526 (1991)Google Scholar
- 10.Haws, C.W., Lux, R.L.: Correlation between in vivo transmembrane action potential durations and activation–recovery intervals from electrograms. Circulation 81, 281–288 (1990)Google Scholar
- 13.Spach, M.S., et al.: Extracellular potentials related to intracellular action potentials in the dog Purkinje system. Circ. Res. 30, 505–519 (1972)Google Scholar
- 14.Spach, M.S., Dolber, P.C.: Relating extracellular potentials and their derivatives to anisotropic propagation at microscopic level in human cardiac muscle. Evidence for electrical uncoupling of side-to-side fiber connections with increasing age. Circ. Res. 58, 356–371 (1986)Google Scholar
- 15.Steinhaus, B.M.: Estimating cardiac transmembrane activation and recovery times from unipolar and bipolar extracellular electrograms: a simulation study. Circ. Res. 64(3), 449–462 (1989)Google Scholar
- 16.Viswanathan, P.C., et al.: Effects of I Kr and I Ks heterogeneity on action potential duration and its rate dependence. Circulation 99, 2466–2474 (1999)Google Scholar
- 17.Wyatt, R.P.: Comparison of estimates of activation and recovery times from bipolar and unipolar electrograms to in vivo transmembrane action potential durations. In: Proc. IEEE/Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2nd Ann. Conf. Washington, DC, pp. 22–25 (1980)Google Scholar
- 18.Yan, G.X., et al.: Characteristics and distribution of M cells in arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparations. Circulation 98, 1921–1927 (1998)Google Scholar