Dolostone Reservoirs

Abstract

The three-dimensional spatial distribution of petrophysical properties is controlled by the spatial distribution of two geological processes, depositional and diagenetic. Although it is clear that the three-dimensional spatial distribution of petrophysical properties is initially controlled by the spatial distribution of depositional textures, it is also clear from numerous reservoir studies that the petrophysical properties found in carbonate reservoirs are significantly different from those of modern carbonate sediment. Diagenesis typically reduces porosity, redistributes the pore space, and alters permeability and capillary characteristics.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Back W, Hanshaw BB, Plummer LN, Rahn PH, Rightmire CT, Rubin M 1983 Process and rate of dedolomitization: mass transfer and 14C dating in a regional carbonate aquifer. GSA Bull 94,12:1415–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaumont E. De 1837 Application de calcul a l’hypothese de la formation par epigenie des anhydrites, des gypses et des dolomies.: Soc. Geol. France Bull. 8:174–177Google Scholar
  3. Butler GP 1969 Modern evaporite deposition and geochemistry of co-existing brines, the sabkha, Trucial Coast, Arabian Gulf, Journal of Sed. Petrology 39:70–89Google Scholar
  4. Cantrell D, Swart P, Handford RC, Kendall, CG, Westphal H 2004 Geologic and production significance of dolomite trends, Arab-D reservoir, Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia. Geo-Arabia 6:45–60Google Scholar
  5. Clement JH 1985 Depositional sequences and characteristics of Ordovician Red River Reservoirs, Pennel Field, Williston Basin, Montana. In: Roehl RO, Choquette PW, (eds) Carbonate petroleum reservoirs. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 85–106Google Scholar
  6. Davies GR, Langhorne BS 2006 Structurally controlled hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies: An overview. AAPG Bulletin, 90,11:1641–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deffeyes KS, Lucia FJ, Weyl PK 1965 Dolomitization of Recent and Plio-Pleistocene sediments by marine evaporite waters on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. In: Pray LC, Murray RC, (eds) Dolomitization and limestone diagenesis — a symposium. SEPM Spec Publ 13, pp71–88Google Scholar
  8. Ehrenberg SN, Eberli GP, Baechle B 2006 Porosity-permeability relationships in Miocene carbonate platforms and slopes seaward of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (ODP Leg 194, Marion Plateau). Sedimentology 53,6:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehrenberg SN, Nadeau PH 2005 Sandstone vs. carbonate petroleum reservoirs: a global perspective on porosity-depth and porosity permeability relationships. AAPG Bull, 89,4:435–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evamy BD 1967 Dedolomitization and the development of rhombohedral pores in limestones. J Sediment Pet 37:1204–1215Google Scholar
  11. Folk RL, Land LS 1975 Mg/Ca ratio and salinity: two controls over crystallization of dolomite. AAPG Bull 59,1:60–68Google Scholar
  12. Galloway WE, Ewing TE, Garrett CE, Tyler N, Bebout DG 1983 Atlas of major Texas oil reservoirs. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, 139 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Hardie LA 1967 The gypsum-anhydrite equilibrium at one atmosphere pressure. Am. Mineral. 52:171–200Google Scholar
  14. Jennings JW, Jr., Lucia FJ 2003 Predicting permeability from well logs in carbonates with a link to geology for interwell permeability mapping: Society of Petroleum Engineers Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering 6,4:215–225Google Scholar
  15. Jennings JW, Jr., Lucia FJ, Ruppel SC 2007 3D modeling of stratigraphically controlled petrophysical variability in the South Wasson Clear Fork Reservoir, In PressGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones GD, Xiao Y 2005 Dolomitization, anhydrite, cementation, and porosity evolution in a reflux system: Insights from reactive transport models. AAPG Bull 89,5:577–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones, RH, Lucia, FJ 2004 Integration of rock fabric, petrophysical class, and stratigraphy for petrophysical quantification of sequence-stratigraphic framework, Fullerton Clear Fork field, Texas. In: Ruppel, SC (ed) Multidisciplinary imaging of rock properties in carbonate reservoirs for flow-unit targeting: Univ. Texas Austin Bureau of Economic Geology, final technical report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-FC26-01BC15351, p. 121–162Google Scholar
  18. Kane, JA, Jennings JW Jr. 2005 A method to normalize log data by calibration to large-scale data trends. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Paper No. SPE 96081, 12 pGoogle Scholar
  19. Kasprzyk A 1995 Gypsum-to-anhydrite transition in the Miocene of southern Poland. J Sedimentary Research, A65,2:348–357Google Scholar
  20. Kolodizie S Jr 1980 Analysis of pore throat size and use of the Waxman-Smits equation to determine OOIP in Spindle Field, Colorado. SPE paper 9382 presented at the 1980 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TexasGoogle Scholar
  21. Land LS, Prezbindowski DR 1981 The origin and evolution of saline formation water, lower Cretaceous carbonates, South-Central Texas, USA. J Hydrol 54:51–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lucia FJ 1995 Rock-fabric/petrophysical classification of carbonate pore space for reservoir characterization. AAPG Bull 79,9:1275–1300Google Scholar
  23. Lucia FJ 1961 Dedolomitization in the Tansill (Permian) Formation. Geol Soc Am Bull 72:1107–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lucia FJ 1962 Diagenesis of a crinoidal sediment. J Sediment Petrol 32,4:848–865Google Scholar
  25. Lucia FJ 1972 Recognition of evaporite-carbonate shoreline sedimentation. In: Rigby JK, Hamblin WK, (eds) Recognition of ancient sedimentary environments. SEPM Spec Publ 16:160–191Google Scholar
  26. Lucia FJ, Kerans C, Wang FP 1995 Fluid-flow characterization of dolomitized carbonate-ramp reservoirs: San Andres Formation (Permian) of Seminole field and Algerita Escarpment, Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico. In: Stoudt EL, Harris PM (eds) Hydrocarbon reservoir characterization: geologic framework and flow unit modeling. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), SEPM Short Course 34:129–153Google Scholar
  27. Lucia FJ, Major RP 1994 Porosity evolution through hypersaline reflux dolomitization. In: Purser BH, Tucker ME, Zenger DH, (eds) Dolomites, a volume in honor of Dolomieu. Int Assoc Sedimentol Spec Publ 21:325–341Google Scholar
  28. Lucia FJ, Murray RC 1966, Origin and distribution of porosity in crinoidal rock. Proc World Petroleum Congr, Mexico City, Mexico, 1966, pp 406–423Google Scholar
  29. Lucia FJ, Conti RD 1987 Rock fabric, permeability, and log relationships in an upward-shoaling, vuggy carbonate sequence. The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Geological Circular 87-5, 22 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Lucia, FJ, Kane JA 2004 Calculations of permeability and initial water saturations from wireline logs. In: Ruppel SC (ed) Multidisciplinary imaging of rock properties in carbonate reservoirs for flow-unit targeting: Univ. Texas Austin Bureau of Economic Geology, final technical report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-FC26-01BC15351, p. 189–218Google Scholar
  31. Lucia, FJ, Jennings JW Jr, Rahnis MA, Meyer FO 2001, Permeability and rock fabric from wireline logs, Arab-D reservoir, Ghawar field, Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 6,4:619–646Google Scholar
  32. Lucia FJ 2002 Integrated outcrop and subsurface studies of the interwell environment of carbonate reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-age) reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico, www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/811895-4EHgbz/native/Google Scholar
  33. Lucia FJ, Jones RH, Jennings JW 2004 Poikilotopic anhydrite enhances reservoir quality (abs.): AAPG Annual Convention Abstracts Volume, v. 13, p. A88Google Scholar
  34. Lucia FJ 2004 Origin and petrophysics of dolostone pore space, In: Braithwaite CJR, Rizzi G, Darke G, (eds), The geometry and petrogenesis of dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs, London, Geological Society, Special Publications 235, pp 141–155Google Scholar
  35. Lucia FJ 1968 Recent sediments and diagenesis of South Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, J. Sediment Petrol 38:XXGoogle Scholar
  36. Melim LA, Anselmitte FS, Eberli GP 2001 The importance of pore type on permeability of Neogene carbonates, Great Bahama Bank. In: Ginsburg RN (ed) Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank: Results of the Bahamas drilling project. Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication 70, pp 217–241Google Scholar
  37. Morrow DW 1990 Dolomite-part 1: the chemistry of dolomitization and dolomite precipitation. In: McIlreath, IA, Morrow, DW (eds) Diagenesis. Geoscience Canada, Reprint Series 4, pp 113–123Google Scholar
  38. Murray RC 1960 Origin of porosity in carbonate rocks. J Sediment Petrol 30:59–84Google Scholar
  39. Murray RC 1964 Origin and diagenesis of gypsum and anhydrite. J Sediment Petrol 34:512–523Google Scholar
  40. Murray RC, Lucia FJ 1967 Cause and control of dolomite distribution by rock selectivity, Geological Soc. of America Bulletin, 78:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pittman, ED 1992 Relationship of porosity and permeability to various parameters derived from mercury injection—capillary pressure curves for sandstone. AAPG Bull 72:191–198.Google Scholar
  42. Powers RW 1962 Arabian Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir rocks. In: Ham WE, (ed) Classification of carbonate rocks, AAPG Mem 1:122–192.Google Scholar
  43. Ruppel SC, Jones, RH 2004 Facies, sequence stratigraphy and porosity development in the Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir. In: Ruppel, SC (ed) Multidisciplinary imaging of rock properties in carbonate reservoirs for flow-unit targeting: Univ. Texas Austin Bureau of Economic Geology, final technical report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-FC26-01BC15351, p. 1–120Google Scholar
  44. Ruppel, SC., ed. 2004, Multidisciplinary imaging of rock properties in carbonate reservoirs for flow-unit targeting: Univ. Texas Austin Bureau of Economic Geology, final technical report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-FC26-01BC15351Google Scholar
  45. Ruppel SC Jones RH 2006 Key role of outcrops and cores in carbonate reservoir characterization and modeling, Lower Permian Fullerton field, Permian Basin, USA. In: Harris PM, Weber LJ (eds) Giant hydrocarbon reservoirs of the world—from rocks to reservoir characterization, SEPM/AAPG Core Workshop, AAPG Annual MeetingGoogle Scholar
  46. Saller AH 1984 Petrologic and geochemical constraints on the origin of subsurface dolomite, Enewetak Atoll: an example of dolomitization by normal seawater. Geology 12: 217–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schmoker JW, Halley RB 1982 Carbonate porosity versus depth: a predictable relation for south Florida. AAPG Bull. 66,12:2561–2570Google Scholar
  48. Scholle PA, Ulmer DS, Melim LA 1992 Late stage calcites in the Permian Capitan Formation and its equivalents, Delaware Basin margin, West Texas and New Mexico: evidence for replacement of precursor evaporites. Sedimentology 39:207–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schreiber BC, Friedman GM, Decima A, Schreiber E 1976 Depositional environments of Upper Miocene (Messinian) evaporite deposits of the Sicilian Basin. Sedimentology, 23:729–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Swart PK, Cantrell DL, Westphal H, Handford CR, Kendall CG 2005 Origin of dolomite in the Arab-D reservoir from the Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia: Evidence from petrographic and geochemical constraints. J Sediment Research, 75,3:476–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thomeer, JHM 1960 Introduction of a pore geometrical factor defined by the capillary pressure curve: AIME Transactions, v. 219, p. 354–358Google Scholar
  52. Wang FP, Lucia FJ, Kerans C 1994 Critical scales, upscaling, and modeling of shallow-water carbonate reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Paper No. SPE 27715, Midland, Texas, pp. 765–773Google Scholar
  53. Wang FP, Lucia FJ, Kerans C 1998 Integrated reservoir characterization study of a carbonate ramp reservoir: Seminole San Andres Unit, Gaines County, Texas. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 1,3:105–114Google Scholar
  54. Wang, Fred, and Lucia FJ 2004 Reservoir modeling and simulation of Fullerton Clear Fork field, Andrews County, Texas. In Ruppel SC (ed) Multidisciplinary imaging of rock properties in carbonate reservoirs for flow-unit targeting: Univ. Texas Austin Bureau of Economic Geology, final technical report prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-FC26-01BC15351, p. 219–304Google Scholar
  55. Ward WC, Halley RB 1985 Dolomitization in a mixing zone of near-seawater composition, Late Pleistocene, Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula. J of Sedimentary Petrology 55,5:407–420Google Scholar
  56. Whitaker FF, Smart PL, Jones DG 2004 Dolomitization: from conceptual to numerical models. In Braithwaite CJR, Rizzi G, Darke G (eds) The geometry and petrogenesis of dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs. London, Geological Society, Special Publications 235, pp 99–139Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Personalised recommendations