Advertisement

Computational Intelligence in Racing Games

  • Julian Togelius
  • Simon M. Lucas
  • Renzo De Nardi
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 71)

Abstract. This chapter surveys the research of us and others into applying evolutionary algorithms and other forms of computational intelligence to various aspects of racing games. We first discuss the various roles of computational intelligence in games, and then go on to describe the evolution of different types of car controllers, modelling of players’ driving styles, evolution of racing tracks, comparisons of evolution with other forms of reinforcement learning, and modelling and controlling physical cars. It is suggested that computational intelligence can be used in different but complementary ways in racing games, and that there is unrealised potential for cross-fertilisation between research in evolutionary robotics and CI for games.

Keywords

Computer Game Computational Intelligence IEEE Symposium Innovation Approach Human Player 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fogel, D.B.: Blondie24playing at the edge of AI. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA 2002Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schraudolph, N.N., Dayan, P., Sejnowski, T.J.: Temporal difference learning of position evaluation in the game of go. In Cowan, J.D., Tesauro, G., Alspector, J., eds.: Advances in Neural Information Processing 6. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco 1994 817-824Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Runarsson, T.P., Lucas, S.M.: Co-evolution versus self-play temporal difference learning for acquiring position evaluation in small-board go. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation (2005) 628-640Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lucas, S.: Evolving a neural network location evaluator to play ms. pac-man. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. (2005) 203-210Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parker, M., Parker, G.B.: The evolution of multi-layer neural networks for the control of xpilot agents. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computa- tional Intelligence and Games. (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Togelius, J., Lucas, S.M.: Forcing neurocontrollers to exploit sensory symme- try through hard-wired modularity in the game of cellz. In: Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games CIG05. (2005)37-43Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cole, N., Louis, S.J., Miles, C.: Using a genetic algorithm to tune first-person shooter bots. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computa- tion. (2004) 13945Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spronck, P.: Adaptive Game AI. PhD thesis, University of Maastricht (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miles, C., Louis, S.J.: Towards the co-evolution of influence map tree based strategy game players. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computa- tional Intelligence and Games. (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cliff, D.: Computational neuroethology: a provisional manifesto. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on simulation of adaptive behavior on From animals to animats. (1991) 29-39Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stanley K.O., Bryant, B.D. Miikkulainen, R.: Real-time neuroevolution in the nero video game. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 9(6) 2005 653-668Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nolfi, S., Floreano, D.: Evolutionary robotics. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ampatzis, C., Tuci, E., Trianni, V., Dorigo, M.: Evolution of signalling in a group of robots controlled by dynamic neural networks. In Sahin, E., Spears, W., Winfield, A., eds.: Swarm Robotics Workshop (SAB06). Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2006Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baldassarre, G., Parisi, D., S., N.: Distributed coordination of simulated robots based on self-organisationArtificial Life 12(3) Summer 2006 289-311Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parker, A.: In the blink of an eye. Gardner books (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koster, R.: A theory of fun for game design. Paraglyph press (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tanev, I., Joachimczak, M., Hemmi, H., Shimohara, K.: Evolution of the driving styles of anticipatory agent remotely operating a scaled model of racing car. In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC- 2005).(2005) 1891-1898Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chaperot, B., Fyfe, C.: Improving artificial intelligence in a motocross game. In: IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Togelius, J., Lucas, S.M.: Evolving controllers for simulated car racing. In: Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation. (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Togelius, J., Lucas, S.M.: Evolving robust and specialized car racing skills. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wloch, K., Bentley, P.J.: Optimising the performance of a formula one car using a genetic algorithm. In: Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature. (2004) 702-711Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stanley, K.O., Kohl, N., Sherony, R., Miikkulainen, R.: Neuroevolution of an automobile crash warning system. In: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolu- tionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005). (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Floreano, D., Kato, T., Marocco, D., Sauser, E.: Coevolution of active vision and feature selection. Biological Cybernetics 90 2004 218-228Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Togelius, J., Lucas, S.M.: Arms races and car races. In: Proceedings of Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, Springer (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Togelius, J., De Nardi, R., Lucas, S.M.: Making racing fun through player modeling and track evolution. In: Proceedings of the SAB’06 Workshop on Adaptive Approaches for Optimizing Player Satisfaction in Computer and Phys- ical Games. (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Togelius, J., De Nardi, R., Lucas, S.M.: Towards automatic personalised content creation in racing games. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. (2007)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pomerleau, D.A.: Neural network vision for robot driving. In: The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. (1995)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bourg, D.M.: Physics for Game Developers. O’Reilly (2002)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Monster, M.: Car physics for games. http://home.planet.nl/ monstrous/tutcar.html (2003)
  30. 30.
    Arkin, R.: Behavior-based robotics. The MIT Press (1998)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Togelius, J.: Evolved car racing videos. http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay? docid=-3808124536098653151, http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=2721348410825414473, http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=-3033926048529222727 (2006)
  32. 32.
    Jirenhed, D.A., Hesslow, G., Ziemke, T.: Exploring internal simulation of per- ception in mobile robots. In: Proceedings of the Fourth European Workshop on Advanced Mobile Robots. (2001) 107-113Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yannakakis, G.N., Maragoudakis, M.: Player modeling impact on player enter- tainment in computer games. In: User Modeling. (2005) 74-78Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Togelius, J., De Nardi, R.: Physical car racing video. http://video.google.co.uk/ videoplay?docid=-2729700536332417204 (2006)
  35. 35.
    Marques, H., Togelius, J., Kogutowska, M., Holland, O.E., Lucas, S.M.: Sen- sorless but not senseless: Prediction in evolutionary car racing. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life. (2007)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lucas, S.M., Togelius, J.: Point-to-point car racing: an initial study of evolution versus temporal difference learning. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. (2007)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Holland, O.E.: Machine Consciousness. Imprint Academic (2003)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baba, N., Jain, L.C.: Computational Intelligence in Games. Springer (2001)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kendall, G., Lucas, S.M.: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computa- tional Intelligence and Games. IEEE Press (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Louis, S.J., Kendall, G.: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. IEEE Press (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian Togelius
    • 1
  • Simon M. Lucas
    • 1
  • Renzo De Nardi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of EssexColchesterUK

Personalised recommendations