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Ubiquitous Geographic Information

  • Tschangho J. Kim
  • Sung-Gheel Jang

Abstract

In this chapter, ubiquitous geographic information (UBGI), which is a relatively new set of concepts, practices, and standards, is introduced and described, and its possible ramifications are analyzed in detail. The chapter begins with the definition of UBGI – geographic information that exists anywhere and anytime. However, the chapter attempts to convince readers that the true goal of UBGI is to make the use of geographic information easy and transparent. The emergence of UBGI needs to be understood within a broader context of both paradigm changes in computing technologies (i.e., centralized, distributed, mobile, and ubiquitous computing) and the advancement of information and communication technologies (ICTs), which make UBGI services feasible. Thus, the chapter reviews how computing technologies have evolved, and introduces the technological breakthroughs of each computing technology, which overcome place and time constraints and enable the realization of UBGI services in everyday life. A few enabling ICTs are then described, and existing UBGI initiatives are introduced. Issues on the technical developments of UBGI services are addressed, and recent standardization efforts on UBGI are introduced. Lastly, the ramifications of UBGI for future lifestyles, particularly in future cities, are discussed.

The chapter is organized as follows: a brief review of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) evolution is introduced as a prelude to the emergence of UBGI. The evolution of computing technologies, from centralized to ubiquitous computing, is introduced as one of the UBGI enablers. Next, a few enabling information and communication technologies that make UBGI services feasible are briefly described, followed by existing UBGI initiatives. The future prospects of UBGI, in particular with respect to future cities, are introduced, before the summary and conclusion.

Keywords

Global Position System Geographic Information System Global Navigation Satellite System Global Navigation Satellite System Ubiquitous Computing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ALPR

automatic license plate recognition

API

application programming interface

CORBA

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (OMG)

DCOM

Distributed Component Object Model (Microsoft)

DoD

US Department of Defense

GI

geographic information

GIS

Geographic Information System

GNSS

Global Navigation Satellite System

GPS

Global Positioning System

ICT

information and communication technology

IP

Interoperability Program

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

IT

information technology

ITS

Intelligent Transportation System

IVHS

intelligent vehicle highway system

LBMS

location-based mobile services

LBS

location-based services

OGC

Open Geospatial Consortium

PC

Personal Computer

PDA

personal digital assistant

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification

RMI

Remote Method Invocation

RPC

Remote Procedure Call

TC

Technical Committee

UBGI

Ubiquitous geographic information

WD

working draft

WG

working group

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urban and Regional Planning, Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  2. 2.Urban StudiesCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

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