Flooding Speed in Wireless Multihop Networks with Randomized Beamforming

  • Vasil Mizorov
  • Jörg Widmer
  • Robert Vilzmann
  • Petri Mähönen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4479)


This paper analyzes aspects of message propagation in multihop wireless networks with beamforming antennas. In particular, we focus our intention on the message propagation in the time domain. Our work uses a simulation based implementation of the 802.11 MAC protocol and a simplified version of a previously proposed MAC protocol, called BeamMAC [1]. Both protocols are compared under different network scenarios with several antenna array implementations (including an omnidirectional antenna).

Our conclusions confirm the advantages beamforming antennas have over omnidirectional antennas in wireless multihop networks. Reduced hop distances and reduced time for information dissemination speed up flooding of messages. Moreover, we observe the impact network topology parameters have on the overall performance of the message propagation.


Ad Hoc Networks antenna arrays randomized beamforming flooding speed 


  1. 1.
    Vilzmann, R., Bettstetter, C., Hartmann, C.: BeamMAC: A New Paradigm for Medium Access in Wireless Networks. International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ) 60(1), 3–7 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takai, M., et al.: Directional Virtual Carrier Sensing for Directional Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In: Proc. 3rd ACM MobiHoc, Switzerland, June 2002, pp. 183–193. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Choudhury, R.R., Vaidya, N.H.: Ad Hoc Routing Using Directional Antennas. Technical Report, Coordinated Science Laboratary, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Aug 2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singh, H., Singh, S.: A MAC Protocol based on Adaptive Beamforming for Ad Hoc Networks. In: Proc. IEEE PIMRC, China, Sep. 2003, pp. 1346–1350. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh, H., Singh, S.: Smart-802.11b MAC Protocol for Use with Smart Antennas. In: Singh, H., Singh, S. (eds.) Proc. IEEE ICC, vol. 6, France, June 2004, pp. 3684–3688. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ko, Y.-B., Shankarkumar, V., Vaidya, N.H.: Medium Access Control Protocols using Directional Antennas in Ad hoc Networks. In: Proc. IEEE Infocom, Israel, March 2000, pp. 13–21. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bettstetter, C., Hartmann, C., Moser, C.: How Does Randomized Beamforming Improve the Connectivity of Ad Hoc Networks? In: Proc. IEEE ICC, Korea, May 2005, pp. 3380–3385. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vilzmann, R., Bettstetter, C.: A Survey on MAC Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antennas. In: Proc. EUNICE Open European Summer School, Spain, July 2005, pp. 268–274 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vilzmann, R., et al.: Hop Distances and Flooding in Wireless Multihop Networks with Randomized Beamforming. In: Proc. ACM MSWIM, Canada, Oct. 2005, pp. 20–27. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balanis, C.A.: Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsumoto, M., Nishimura, T.: Mersenne Twister: A 623-Dimensionally Equidistributed Uniform Pseudo-Random Number Generator. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation 8(1), 3–30 (1998)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    IEEE Standards Board: Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications (1999),
  13. 13.
    Bettstetter, C.: Mobility Modelling, Connectivity, and Adaptive Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks. PhD Thesis, Technische Universität München, Germany (Oct. 2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Algorithmic Solutions: LEDA - Library of Efficient Data Types and Algorithms (Dec. 2005),
  15. 15.
    Mizorov, V.: Routing in Ad Hoc Networks with Beamforming Antennas, Master Thesis, RWTH Aachen University (Dec. 2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Korakis, T., Jakllari, G., Tassiulas, L.: A MAC protocol for full exploitation of directional antennas in ad hoc wireless networks. In: Proc. 4th ACM MobiHoc, USA, June 2003, pp. 98–107. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weichselberger, W., de Echazarreta, G.L.: Comparison of Circular and Linear Antenna Arrays with respect to the UMTS Link Level. In: COST 260 Management Committee and Working Groups Meeting, Göteburg, Sweden (May 2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Razavi-Ghods, N., Abdalla, M., Salous, S.: Characterisation of MIMO Propagation Channels Using Directional Antenna Arrays. In: Proc. IEE International Conference on 3G Mobile Communication Technologies (3G2004), London, UK (October 2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasil Mizorov
    • 1
  • Jörg Widmer
    • 2
  • Robert Vilzmann
    • 3
  • Petri Mähönen
    • 4
  1. 1.Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, D-81730 MunichGermany
  2. 2.DoCoMo Euro-Labs, D-80687 MunichGermany
  3. 3.Technische Universität München, D-80290 MunichGermany
  4. 4.RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 AachenGermany

Personalised recommendations