A (Second) Preimage Attack on the GOST Hash Function

  • Florian Mendel
  • Norbert Pramstaller
  • Christian Rechberger
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5086)

Abstract

In this article, we analyze the security of the GOST hash function with respect to (second) preimage resistance. The GOST hash function, defined in the Russian standard GOST-R 34.11-94, is an iterated hash function producing a 256-bit hash value. As opposed to most commonly used hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-1, the GOST hash function defines, in addition to the common iterated structure, a checksum computed over all input message blocks. This checksum is then part of the final hash value computation. For this hash function, we show how to construct second preimages and preimages with a complexity of about 2225 compression function evaluations and a memory requirement of about 238 bytes.

First, we show how to construct a pseudo-preimage for the compression function of GOST based on its structural properties. Second, this pseudo-preimage attack on the compression function is extended to a (second) preimage attack on the GOST hash function. The extension is possible by combining a multicollision attack and a meet-in-the-middle attack on the checksum.

Keywords

cryptanalysis hash functions preimage attack 

References

  1. 1.
    Biryukov, A., Wagner, D.: Advanced Slide Attacks. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 589–606. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Black, J., Cochran, M., Highland, T.: A Study of the MD5 Attacks: Insights and Improvements. In: Robshaw, M.J.B. (ed.) FSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4047, pp. 262–277. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cannière, C.D., Rechberger, C.: Finding SHA-1 Characteristics: General Results and Applications. In: Lai, X., Chen, K. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 2006. LNCS, vol. 4284, pp. 1–20. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gauravaram, P., Kelsey, J.: Cryptanalysis of a Class of Cryptographic Hash Functions. Accepted at CT-RSA (2008), http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/277
  5. 5.
    Joux, A.: Multicollisions in Iterated Hash Functions. In: Franklin, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2004. LNCS, vol. 3152, pp. 306–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kelsey, J., Schneier, B., Wagner, D.: Key-Schedule Cryptoanalysis of IDEA, G-DES, GOST, SAFER, and Triple-DES. In: Koblitz, N. (ed.) CRYPTO 1996. LNCS, vol. 1109, pp. 237–251. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knudsen, L.R., Mathiassen, J.E.: Preimage and Collision Attacks on MD2. In: Gilbert, H., Handschuh, H. (eds.) FSE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3557, pp. 255–267. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ko, Y., Hong, S., Lee, W., Lee, S., Kang, J.-S.: Related Key Differential Attacks on 27 Rounds of XTEA and Full-Round GOST. In: Roy, B., Meier, W. (eds.) FSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3017, pp. 299–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lamberger, M., Pramstaller, N., Rechberger, C., Rijmen, V.: Second Preimages for SMASH. In: Abe, M. (ed.) CT-RSA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4377, pp. 101–111. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Michels, M., Naccache, D., Petersen, H.: GOST 34.10 - A brief overview of Russia’s DSA. Computers & Security 15(8), 725–732 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Quisquater, J.-J., Delescaille, J.-P.: How Easy is Collision Search. New Results and Applications to DES. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 408–413. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saarinen, M.-J.O.: A chosen key attack against the secret S-boxes of GOST (1998), http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/saarinen98chosen.html
  13. 13.
    Seki, H., Kaneko, T.: Differential Cryptanalysis of Reduced Rounds of GOST. In: Stinson, D.R., Tavares, S. (eds.) SAC 2000. LNCS, vol. 2012, pp. 315–323. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang, X., Lai, X., Feng, D., Chen, H., Yu, X.: Cryptanalysis of the Hash Functions MD4 and RIPEMD. In: Cramer, R.J.F. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 1–18. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang, X., Yin, Y.L., Yu, H.: Finding Collisions in the Full SHA-1. In: Shoup, V. (ed.) CRYPTO 2005. LNCS, vol. 3621, pp. 17–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, X., Yu, H.: How to Break MD5 and Other Hash Functions. In: Cramer, R.J.F. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 19–35. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yu, H., Wang, X., Yun, A., Park, S.: Cryptanalysis of the Full HAVAL with 4 and 5 Passes. In: Robshaw, M.J.B. (ed.) FSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4047, pp. 89–110. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Mendel
    • 1
  • Norbert Pramstaller
    • 1
  • Christian Rechberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Applied Information Processing and Communications (IAIK)Graz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations