Elderly Users in Ambient Intelligence: Does an Avatar Improve the Interaction?
In order to examine the effect of an avatar in natural interaction with elderly users in ambient intelligent environments, we performed an empirical study with elderly people (normal aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s patients) not only on subjective but also on objective measures. The data supports the following: 1) The subjects followed some instructions much better when interacting with the avatar. 2) The presence of the avatar has neither any positive nor negative effect on the recall of elderly people and it has a positive effect only on the subjective measures. 3) We found that elderly people both with and without cognitive impairment are capable of recognizing emotions in the facial expressions of the avatar and 4) they found the experience of having an emotional avatar in the interface a pleasant one. Thus, we conclude that virtual characters could improve the interaction between elderly people and machines, but this would depend greatly on the request task.
KeywordsFacial Expression Mild Cognitive Impairment Elderly People Emotion Recognition Elderly User
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bartneck, C.: eMuu - An Embodied Emotional Character for the Ambient Intelligen Home. PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (2002)Google Scholar
- 3.Hargrave, R., M.R.J., Stone, V.: recognition of facial expressions of emotion in alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 14, 64–71 (2002)Google Scholar
- 4.Hongpaisanwiwat, C., Lewis, M.: Attentional effect of animated character. In: INTERACT (2003)Google Scholar
- 5.Kim, Y.: Pedagogical agents as learning companions: the effects of agent affect and gender on student learning, interest, self-efficacy, and agent persona. PhD thesis, Tallahassee, FL, USA, Major Professor-Amy L. Baylor (2004)Google Scholar
- 6.Koda, T., Maes, P.: Agents with faces: The effects of personification of agents. In: 5th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, Tsukuba, Japan, IEEE, Los Alamitos (1996)Google Scholar
- 7.McKhann, G., Drachman, D.: F.M.K.R.P.D.: Clinical diagnosis of alzheimer’s disease. Technical Report 34: 939-944, NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease (1984)Google Scholar
- 8.Mehrabian, A.: Communication without words. Psychology Today 2, 53–56 (1968)Google Scholar
- 9.Moore, D.: C.Y.M.P.y.P.N.: Avatars and autism. In: Knops, A.P.H. (ed.) Assistive technology from virtuality to reality, Lille - France (2005)Google Scholar
- 10.Mülken, S., A.E., Müller, J.: The persona effect: How substantial is it? In: Johnson, L.N., C.R. (eds.) The British HCI Group, pp. 53–66. Springer, Sheffield (1998)Google Scholar
- 11.Nass, C., Steuer, J., Tauber, E.R.: Computers are social actors. In: CHI ’94: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 72–78. ACM Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
- 13.Ogozalek, V.Z.: A comparison of the use of text and multimedia interfaces to provide information to the elderly. In: CHI ’94: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 65–71. ACM Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
- 14.Okonkwo, C., V.J.: Affective pedagogical agents and user persuasion. In: C.S. (ed.) Universal Access in Human - Computer Interaction (UAHCI), New Orleans, USA, pp. 397-401 (2001)Google Scholar
- 15.Ortiz, A., Oyarzun, D., I.A.I.A,, Posada, J.: Three-dimensional whole body of virtual character animation for its behavior in a virtual environment using h-anim and inverse kinematics. In: I.C.S. (ed.) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), pp. 307–310. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
- 17.Reilly, W.S.N.: Believable Social and Emotional Agents. PhD thesis (1996)Google Scholar
- 18.Rey, A.: Léxamen clinique en psychologie. Presses universitaires de France, París (1964)Google Scholar
- 19.Riva, A.G.F.M.G.C.B.W.G.: Avatars in clinical psychology: A framework for the clinical use of virtual humans. CyberPsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society 6(2), 117–125 (2003)Google Scholar
- 20.Sullivan, S., Ruffman, T.: Emotion recognition deficits in the elderly. Journal of Neuroscience. 114(3), 403–432 (2004)Google Scholar
- 22.Wechsler, D.: Wechsler memory scale revised manual. San Antonio, CA: Psychological corporation (1987)Google Scholar