TT Viruses pp 35-52

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 331)

TT Viruses in Animals

Abstract

Infection with TT virus (Torque teno virus, TTV), a small, nonenveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome classified in the floating genus Anellovirus , is not restricted to humans. Using highly conserved primers derived from the untranslated region of the human TTV genome, a variety of TTV-like viruses have been found circulating in nonhuman primates such as chimpanzees, macaques, and tamarins. TTV variants in nonhuman primates are species-specific, although some genetic groups of human and chimpanzee TTVs cluster to make human/chimpanzee clades. TTVs from macaques and tamarins are increasingly divergent from TTV variants infecting humans and chimpanzees. TTV-like mini virus (TTMV) infections have also been detected in chimpanzees, with genotypes distinct but interspersed with human TTMV genotypes. Pets are also naturally infected with species-specific TTVs, and several isolates have been found in cats and dogs. In addition, other mammals such as tupaias and pigs have species-specific TTVs: swine TTVs are found among pigs worldwide. The genomic organization and proposed transcriptional profiles of TTVs infecting nonhuman primate and other mammalian species are similar to those of human TTVs, and co-evolution of TTVs with their hosts has been suggested. To date, TTVs infecting nonhuman primates and other mammalian species have been under-examined. It is likely that essentially all animals are naturally infected with species-specific TTVs.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe K, Inami T, Ishikawa K, et al (2000) TT virus infection in nonhuman primates and characterization of the viral genome: identification of simian TT virus isolates. J Virol 74:1549–1553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Moslih MI, Perkins H, Hu YW (2007) Genetic relationship of Torque teno virus (TTV) between humans and camels in United Arab Emirates (UAE). J Med Virol 79:188–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan GM, Caprioli A, McNair I, et al (2007) Porcine circovirus 2 replication in colostrum-deprived piglets following experimental infection and immune stimulation using a modified live vaccine against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus. Zoonoses Public Health 54:214–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allander T, Emerson SU, Engle RE, et al (2001) A virus discovery method incorporating DNase treatment and its application to the identification of two bovine parvovirus species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11609–11614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biagini P, Gallian P, Attoui H, et al (2001) Genetic analysis of full-length genomes and subge-nomic sequences of TT virus-like mini virus human isolates. J Gen Virol 82:379–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Biagini P, Todd D, Bendinelli M, et al (2005) Genus Anellovirus . In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, et al (eds) Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses, eight report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier/Academic Press, London, pp 335–341Google Scholar
  7. Biagini P, Uch R, Belhouchet M, et al (2007) Circular genomes related to anelloviruses identified in human and animal samples by using a combined rolling-circle amplification/sequence-independent single primer amplification approach. J Gen Virol 88:2696–2701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigarré L, Beven V, de Boisseson C, et al (2005) Pig anelloviruses are highly prevalent in swine herds in France. J Gen Virol 86:631–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brassard J, Gagne MJ, Lamoureux L, et al (2008) Molecular detection of bovine and porcine Torque teno virus in plasma and feces. Vet Microbiol 126:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chae C (2005) A review of porcine circovirus 2-associated syndromes and diseases. Vet J 169:326–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cong ME, Nichols B, Dou XG, et al (2000) Related TT viruses in chimpanzees. Virology 274:343–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dean FB, Nelson JR, Giesler TL, et al (2001) Rapid amplification of plasmid and phage DNA using Phi 29 DNA polymerase and multiply-primed rolling circle amplification. Genome Res 11:1095–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Esteban JA, Salas M, Blanco L (1993) Fidelity of phi 29 DNA polymerase. Comparison between protein-primed initiation and DNA polymerization. J Biol Chem 268:2719–2726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Garmendia C, Bernad A, Esteban JA, Blanco L, Salas M (1992) The bacteriophage phi 29 DNA polymerase, a proofreading enzyme. J Biol Chem 267:2594–2599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Haible D, Kober S, Jeske H (2006) Rolling circle amplification revolutionizes diagnosis and genomics of geminiviruses. J Virol Methods 135:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hallett RL, Clewley JP, Bobet F, et al (2000) Characterization of a highly divergent TT virus genome. J Gen Virol 81:2273–2279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hijikata M, Takahashi K, Mishiro S (1999) Complete circular DNA genome of a TT virus variant (isolate name SANBAN) and 44 partial ORF2 sequences implicating a great degree of diversity beyond genotypes. Virology 260:17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hino S, Miyata H (2007) Torque teno virus (TTV): current status. Rev Med Virol 17:45–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Inami T, Obara T, Moriyama M, et al (2000) Full-length nucleotide sequence of a simian TT virus isolate obtained from a chimpanzee: evidence for a new TT virus-like species. Virology 277:330–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Iwaki Y, Aiba N, Tran HT, et al (2003) Simian TT virus (s-TTV) infection in patients with liver diseases. Hepatol Res 25:135–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johne R, Fernandez-de-Luco D, Hofle U, et al (2006) Genome of a novel circovirus of starlings, amplified by multiply primed rolling-circle amplification. J Gen Virol 87:1189–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kamahora T, Hino S, Miyata H (2000) Three spliced mRNAs of TT virus transcribed from a plasmid containing the entire genome in COS1 cells. J Virol 74:9980–9986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kekarainen T, Segales J (2008) Torque teno virus infection in the pig and its potential role as a model of human infection. Vet J Feb 22 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  24. Kekarainen T, Sibila M, Segales J (2006) Prevalence of swine Torque teno virus in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected and non-PMWS-affected pigs in Spain. J Gen Virol 87:833–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khudyakov YE, Cong ME, Nichols B, et al (2000) Sequence heterogeneity of TT virus and closely related viruses. J Virol 74:2990–3000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leary TP, Erker JC, Chalmers ML, et al (1999) Improved detection systems for TT virus reveal high prevalence in humans, non-human primates and farm animals. J Gen Virol 80:2115–2120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lisitsyn N, Lisitsyn N, Wigler M (1993) Cloning the differences between two complex genomes. Science 259:946–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martelli F, Caprioli A, Di Bartolo I, et al (2006) Detection of swine torque teno virus in Italian pig herds. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53:234–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin RD (1990) Are tree shrews primates? In: Martin RD (ed) Primate origins and evolution: a phylogenetic reconstruction. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 191–213Google Scholar
  30. Martinez L, Kekarainen T, Sibila M, et al (2006) Torque teno virus (TTV) is highly prevalent in the European wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). Vet Microbiol 118:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McKeown NE, Fenaux M, Halbur PG, et al (2004) Molecular characterization of porcine TT virus, an orphan virus, in pigs from six different countries. Vet Microbiol 104:113–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miyata H, Tsunoda H, Kazi A, et al (1999) Identification of a novel GC-rich 113-nucleotide region to complete the circular, single-stranded DNA genome of TT virus, the first human cir-covirus. J Virol 73:3582–3586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Muljono DH, Nishizawa T, Tsuda F, et al (2001) Molecular epidemiology of TT virus (TTV) and characterization of two novel TTV genotypes in Indonesia. Arch Virol 146:1249–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mushahwar IK, Erker JC, Muerhoff AS, et al (1999) Molecular and biophysical characterization of TT virus: evidence for a new virus family infecting humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:3177–3182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Niel C, Saback FL, Lampe E (2000) Coinfection with multiple TT virus strains belonging to different genotypes is a common event in healthy Brazilian adults. J Clin Microbiol 38:1926–1930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Niel C, Diniz-Mendes L, Devalle S (2005) Rolling-circle amplification of Torque teno virus (TTV) complete genomes from human and swine sera and identification of a novel swine TTV genogroup. J Gen Virol 86:1343–1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ninomiya M, Nishizawa T, Takahashi M, et al (2007a) Identification and genomic characterization of a novel human torque teno virus of 3.2 kb. J Gen Virol 88:1939–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ninomiya M, Takahashi M, Shimosegawa T, et al (2007b) Analysis of the entire genomes of fifteen torque teno midi virus variants classifiable into a third group of genus Anellovirus. Arch Virol 152:1961–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ninomiya M, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, et al (2008) Development of PCR assays with nested primers specific for differential detection of three human anelloviruses and early acquisition of dual or triple infection during infancy. J Clin Microbiol 46:507–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nishizawa T, Okamoto H, Konishi K, et al (1997) A novel DNA virus (TTV) associated with elevated transaminase levels in posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 241:92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Noppornpanth S, Chinchai T, Ratanakorn P, et al (2001) TT virus infection in gibbons. J Vet Med Sci 63:663–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Okamoto H, Akahane Y, Ukita M, et al (1998a) Fecal excretion of a nonenveloped DNA virus (TTV) associated with posttransfusion non-A—G hepatitis. J Med Virol 56:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Kato N, et al (1998b) Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel DNA virus (TTV) associated with posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. Hepatol Res 10:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Okamoto H, Kato N, Iizuka H, et al (1999a) Distinct genotypes of a nonenveloped DNA virus associated with posttransfusion non-A to G hepatitis (TT virus) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Med Virol 57:252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Ukita M (1999b) A novel unenveloped DNA virus (TT virus) associated with acute and chronic non-A to G hepatitis. Intervirology 42:196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Ukita M, et al (1999c) The entire nucleotide sequence of a TT virus isolate from the United States (TUS01): comparison with reported isolates and phylogenetic analysis. Virology 259:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Okamoto H, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, et al (1999d) Marked genomic heterogeneity and frequent mixed infection of TT virus demonstrated by PCR with primers from coding and noncoding regions. Virology 259:428–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Okamoto H, Fukuda M, Tawara A, et al (2000a) Species-specific TT viruses and cross-species infection in nonhuman primates. J Virol 74:1132–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Tawara A, et al (2000b) Species-specific TT viruses in humans and nonhuman primates and their phylogenetic relatedness. Virology 277:368–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Tawara A, et al (2000c) TT virus mRNAs detected in the bone marrow cells from an infected individual. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279:700–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Okamoto H, Ukita M, Nishizawa T, et al (2000d) Circular double-stranded forms of TT virus DNA in the liver. J Virol 74:5161–5167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Takahashi M, et al (2001a) Genomic and evolutionary characterization of TT virus (TTV) in tupaias and comparison with species-specific TTVs in humans and non-human primates. J Gen Virol 82:2041–2050Google Scholar
  53. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Takahashi M, et al (2001b) Heterogeneous distribution of TT virus of distinct genotypes in multiple tissues from infected humans. Virology 288:358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Okamoto H, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, et al (2002) Genomic characterization of TT viruses (TTVs) in pigs, cats and dogs and their relatedness with species-specific TTVs in primates and tupaias. J Gen Virol 83:1291–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Takahashi M (2004) Torque teno virus (TTV): molecular virology and clinical implications. In: Mushahwar IK (ed) Viral hepatitis: molecular biology, diagnosis, epidemiology and control. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  56. Peng YH, Nishizawa T, Takahashi M, et al (2002) Analysis of the entire genomes of thirteen TT virus variants classifiable into the fourth and fifth genetic groups, isolated from viremic infants. Arch Virol 147:21–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rector A, Tachezy R, Van Ranst M (2004) A sequence-independent strategy for detection and cloning of circular DNA virus genomes by using multiply primed rolling-circle amplification. J Virol 78:4993–4998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reyes GR, Kim JP (1991) Sequence-independent, single-primer amplification (SISPA) of complex DNA populations. Mol Cell Probes 5:473–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Romeo R, Hegerich P, Emerson SU, et al (2000) High prevalence of TT virus (TTV) in naive chimpanzees and in hepatitis C virus-infected humans: frequent mixed infections and identification of new TTV genotypes in chimpanzees. J Gen Virol 81:1001–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phyloge-netic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Takahashi K, Hijikata M, Samokhvalov EI, et al (2000a) Full or near full length nucleotide sequences of TT virus variants (Types SANBAN and YONBAN) and the TT virus-like mini virus. Intervirology 43:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Takahashi K, Iwasa Y, Hijikata M, et al (2000b) Identification of a new human DNA virus (TTV-like mini virus, TLMV) intermediately related to TT virus and chicken anemia virus. Arch Virol 145:979–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Takayama S, Yamazaki S, Matsuo S, et al (1999) Multiple infection of TT virus (TTV) with different genotypes in Japanese hemophiliacs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256:208–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tawara A, Akahane Y, Takahashi M, et al (2000) Transmission of human TT virus of genotype 1a to chimpanzees with fecal supernatant or serum from patients with acute TTV infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278:470–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thom K, Morrison C, Lewis JC, et al (2003) Distribution of TT virus (TTV), TTV-like minivirus, and related viruses in humans and nonhuman primates. Virology 306:324–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Todd D, Bendinelli M, Biagigi P et al (2005) Family Circoviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, et al (eds) Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses, eight report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier/Academic Press, London, pp 327–334Google Scholar
  67. Tsuda F, Okamoto H, Ukita M, et al (1999) Determination of antibodies to TT virus (TTV) and application to blood donors and patients with post-transfusion non-A to G hepatitis in Japan. J Virol Methods 77:199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ukita M, Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, et al (2000) The entire nucleotide sequences of two distinct TT virus (TTV) isolates (TJN01 and TJN02) remotely related to the original TTV isolates. Arch Virol 145:1543–1559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Verschoor EJ, Langenhuijzen S, Heeney JL (1999) TT viruses (TTV) of non-human primates and their relationship to the human TTV genotypes. J Gen Virol 80:2491–2499PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Virology, Department of Infections and ImmunityJichi Medical University School of MedicineShimotsuke-ShiJapan

Personalised recommendations