Advertisement

Mutually Coordinated Anticipatory Multimodal Interaction

  • Anton Nijholt
  • Dennis Reidsma
  • Herwin van Welbergen
  • Rieks op den Akker
  • Zsofia Ruttkay
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5042)

Abstract

We introduce our research on anticipatory and coordinated interaction between a virtual human and a human partner. Rather than adhering to the turn taking paradigm, we choose to investigate interaction where there is simultaneous expressive behavior by the human interlocutor and a humanoid. Various applications in which we can study and specify such behavior, in particular behavior that requires synchronization based on predictions from performance and perception, are presented. Some observations concerning the role of predictions in conversations are presented and architectural consequences for the design of virtual humans are drawn.

Keywords

Virtual Human Temporal Coordination Expressive Behavior Human Partner Conversational Partner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    André, E., Rist, T., van Mulken, S., Klesen, M., Baldes, S.: The automated design of believable dialogues for animated presentation teams. In: Cassell, J., Prevost, S., Sullivan, J., Churchill, E. (eds.) Embodied Conversational Agents, pp. 220–255. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N.: Digital chameleons: Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments. Psychological Science 16(1), 814–819 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Basu, S.: Conversational scene analysis. MIT Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bavelas, J.B., Coates, L., Johnson, T.: Listeners as co-narrators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79(6), 941–952 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boker, S.M., Xu, M., Rotondo, J.L., King, K.: Windowed cross-correlation and peak picking for the analysis of variability in the association between behavioral time series. Psychological Methods 7(3), 338–355 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bos, P., Reidsma, D., Ruttkay, Z.M., Nijholt, A.: Interacting with a virtual conductor. In: [16], pp. 25–30Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bull, M.: An analysis of between-speaker intervals. In: Proceedings 1996 of the Edinburgh Postgraduate Conference in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, pp. 18–27 (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carletta, J.C., Ashby, S., Bourban, S., Flynn, M., Guillemot, M., Hain, T., Kadlec, J., Karaiskos, V., Kraaij, W., Kronenthal, M., Lathoud, M., Lincoln, M., Lisowska, A., McCowan, I., Post, W.M., Reidsma, D., Wellner, P.: The AMI meeting corpus: A preannouncement. In: Renals, S., Bengio, S. (eds.) MLMI 2005. LNCS, vol. 3869, pp. 28–39. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cassell, J., Pelachaud, C., Badler, N., Steedman, M., Achorn, B., Becket, T., Douville, B., Prevost, S., Stone, M.: Animated conversation: rule-based generation of facial expression, gesture & spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents. In: SIGGRAPH 1994: Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 413–420. ACM Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H.H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: The behavior expression animation toolkit. In: Fiume, E. (ed.) SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, pp. 477–486. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coates, J.: No gap, lots of overlap: turn-taking patterns in the talk of women friends. Multilingual Matters, 177–192 (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cowley, S.J.: Of timing, turn-taking, and conversations. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 27(5), 541–571 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crown, C.L.: Coordinated Interpersonal Timing of Vision and Voice as a Function of interpersonal Attraction. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 10(1), 29–46 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Emmott, S.J., Travis, D.: Information superhighways: multimedia users and futures. Academic Press, Inc., Duluth (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goodrich, S., Henderson, L., Allchin, N., Jeevaratnam, A.: On the peculiarity of simple reaction time. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 42(4), 763–775 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harper, R., Rauterberg, M., Combetto, M. (eds.): 5th International Conference on Entertainment Computing. LNCS, vol. 4161. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heylen, D., Nijholt, A., Poel, M.: Generating nonverbal signals for a sensitive artificial listener. In: Esposito, A., Faundez-Zanuy, M., Keller, E., Marinaro, M. (eds.) COST Action 2102. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4775, pp. 264–274. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Izdebski, K., Shipp, T.: Minimal reaction times for phonatory initiation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 21(4), 638–651 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnson, L.L., Rickel, J.W., Lester, J.: Animated pedagogical agents: Face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 11, 47–78 (2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jonsdottir, G.R., Gratch, J., Fast, E., Thórisson, K.R.: Fluid semantic back-channel feedback in dialogue: Challenges and progress. In: [27], pp. 154–160Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Keller, E.: Beats for individual timing variation. In: Esposito, A., Keller, E., Marinaro, M., Bratanic, M. (eds.) The Fundamentals of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication and the Biometrical Issue. NATO Security through Science: Human and Societal Dynamics, vol. 18, pp. 115–128. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kopp, S.: Surface realization of multimodal output from xml representations in MURML. In: Invited Workshop on Representations for Multimodal Generation (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kopp, S., Krenn, B., Marsella, S., Marshall, A.N., Pelachaud, C., Pirker, H., Thórisson, K.R., Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Towards a common framework for multimodal generation: The behavior markup language. In: Gratch, J., Young, M.R., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 205–217. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kopp, S., Wachsmuth, I.: Model-based animation of co-verbal gesture. In: CA 2002: Proceedings of the Computer Animation Conference, p. 252. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maatman, R.M., Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: Natural behavior of a listening agent. In: Panayiotopoulos, T., Gratch, J., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P., Rist, T. (eds.) Intelligent Virtual Agents. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3661, pp. 25–36. Springer, Berlin (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McNeill, D.: Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nagaoka, C., Komori, M., Yoshikawa, S.: Synchrony tendency: interactional synchrony and congruence of nonverbal behavior in social interaction. In: Proceedings International Conference on Active Media Technology, pp. 529–534 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Noot, H., Ruttkay, Z.: The Gestyle language. In: International workshop on gesture and sign language based human-computer interaction (2003)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O’Connell, D.C., Kowal, S., Kaltenbacher, E.: Turn-taking: A critical analysis of the research tradition. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 19(6), 345–373 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pelachaud, C., Martin, J.-C., André, E., Chollet, G., Karpouzis, K., Pelé, D. (eds.): Intelligent Virtual Agents, 7th International Conference. LNCS, vol. 4722. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ramseyer, F., Tschacher, W.: Synchrony: A Core Concept for a Constructivist Approach to Psychotherapy. Constructivism in the Human Sciences 11(1), 150–171 (2006)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ramseyer, F., Tschacher, W.: Synchrony in dyadic psychotherapy sessions. In: Simultaneity: Temporal Structures and Observer Perspectives, ch. 18. World Scientific, Singapore (to appear, 2008)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The media equation: how people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Cambridge University Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reidsma, D., Welbergen, H., van Poppe, R., Bos, P., Nijholt, A.: Towards bidirectional dancing interaction. In: [16], pp. 1–12Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rickel, J.W., Gratch, J., Marsella, S., Swartout, W.: Steve goes to Bosnia: Towards a new generation of virtual humans for interactive experiences. In: AAAI Spring Symposium of Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment (2001)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Robins, B., Dautenhahn, K., Nehaniv, C.L., Mirza, N.A., Francois, D., Olsson, L.: Sustaining interaction dynamics and engagement in dyadic child-robot interaction kinesics: Lessons learnt from an exploratory study. In: Proc. of the 14th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ruttkay, Z.M., Zwiers, J., Welbergen, H., van Reidsma, D.: Towards a reactive virtual trainer. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 292–303. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sacks, H., Schegloff, E.A., Jefferson, G.: A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language 50(4), 696–735 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sanders, C.: The Paris years. In: Sanders, C. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Saussure, Ch. 2., pp. 30–46. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Slowiaczek, L.M.: Semantic priming in a single-word shadowing task. The American Journal of Psychology 107(2), 245–260 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suzuki, N., Takeuchi, Y., Ishii, K., Okada, M.: Effects of echoic mimicry using hummed sounds on human-computer interaction. Speech Communication 40(4), 559–573 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Theune, M., Heylen, D., Nijholt, A.: Generating Embodied Information Presentations. In: Stock, O., Zancanaro, M. (eds.) Multimodal Intelligent Information Presentation, Ch. 3. Kluwer Series on Text, Speech and Language Technology, vol. 27, pp. 47–70. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thórisson, K.R.: Communicative humanoids: a computational model of psychosocial dialogue skills. PhD thesis, MIT Media Laboratory (1996)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thórisson, K.R.: Natural Turn-Taking Needs No Manual: Computational Theory and Model, from Perception to Action. In: Multimodality in Language and Speech Systems, pp. 173–207. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vilhjálmsson, H.H., Cantelmo, N., Cassell, J., Chafai, N.E., Kipp, M., Kopp, S., Mancini, M., Marsella, S., Marshall, A.N., Pelachaud, C., Ruttkay, Z.M., Thórisson, K.R., van Welbergen, H., van der Werf, R.J.: The behavior markup language: Recent developments and challenges. In: [30], pp. 99–111Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ward, N., Tsukahara, W.: A Responsive Dialog System. In: Wilks, Y. (ed.) Machine Conversations, pp. 169–174. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Welbergen, H., van, N.A., Reidsma, D., Zwiers, J.: Presenting in virtual worlds: Towards an architecture for a 3D presenter explaining 2D-presented information. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21(5), 47–53 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Welbergen, H., van Ruttkay, Z.: On the parameterization of clapping. In: Proc. 7th International Workshop on Gesture in Human-Computer Interaction and Simulation (to appear, 2007)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wilson, M., Wilson, T.P.: An oscillator model of the timing of turn-taking. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12(6), 957–968 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yngve, V.H.: On getting a word in edgewise. In: Papers from the 6th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, pp. 567–577. University of Chicago (1970)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anton Nijholt
    • 1
  • Dennis Reidsma
    • 1
  • Herwin van Welbergen
    • 1
  • Rieks op den Akker
    • 1
  • Zsofia Ruttkay
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Media Interaction Group (HMI) Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of TwenteThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations