The notion of a pilot wave was first proposed by Louis de Broglie (1892–1987) in his doctorate thesis in 1924  and eventually published in 1927 . Earlier experiments on the ► photoelectric effect showed the need to introduce the notion of a ‘packet’ of electromagnetic energy, the photon, into what had till then been thought to be a purely wave phenomena. How then was it possible to bring together the particle and the wave, two apparently contradictory physical notions into one theory?
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