Measles pp 213-241 | Cite as

Measles Virus for Cancer Therapy

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 330)

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional so-called spontaneous tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their nontransformed counterparts.For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency, and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of preexisting anti-measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in 50 years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild-type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aghi M, Martuza RL (2005) Oncolytic viral therapies—the clinical experience. Oncogene 24:7802–7816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aisenberg AC, Davis C (1968) The thymus and recovery from cyclophosphamide-induced tolerance to sheep erythrocytes. J Exp Med 128:35–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldous IR, Kirman BH, Butler N, et al (1961) Vaccination against measles. III. Clinical trial in British children. BMJ 2(5262):1250–1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen C, Vongpungsawad S, Nakamura T, et al (2006) Retargeted oncolytic measles strains entering via the EGFRvIII receptor maintain significant antitumor activity against gliomas with increased tumor specificity. Cancer Res 66:11840–11850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen C, Paraskevakou G, Liu C, et al (2008) Oncolytic measles virus strains in the treatment of gliomas. Expert Opin Biol Ther 8:213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson BD, Nakamura T, Russell SJ, et al (2004) High CD46 receptor density determines preferential killing of tumor cells by oncolytic measles virus. Cancer Res 64:4919–4926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anonymous (1996) Measles pneumonitis following measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of a patient with HIV infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 45:603–606Google Scholar
  8. Asada T (1974) Treatment of human cancer with mumps virus. Cancer 34:1907–1928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Audet S, Virata-Theimer ML, Beeler MJ, et al (2006) Measles-virus-neutralizing antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulins. J Infect Dis 194:781–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Auwaerter PG, Rota PA, Elkins WR, et al (1999) Measles virus infection in rhesus macaques: altered immune responses and comparison of the virulence of six different virus strains. J Infect Dis 180:950–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bajzer Z, Carr T, Josic K, et al (2008) Modeling of cancer virotherapy with recombinant measles viruses. J Theor Biol 252:109–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balachandran S, Barber GN (2007) PKR in innate immunity, cancer, and viral oncolysis. Methods Mol Biol 383:277–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bankamp B, Hodge G, McChesney MB, et al (2008) Genetic changes that affect the virulence of measles virus in a rhesus macaque model. Virology 373:39–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Basler CF, Garcia-Sastre A (2002) Viruses and the type I interferon antiviral system: induction and evasion. Int Rev Immunol 21:305–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bjorge L, Hakulinen J, Walström T, et al (1997) Complement-regulatory proteins in ovarian malignancies. Int J Cancer 70:14–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blechacz B, Splinter PL, Greiner S, et al (2006) Engineered measles virus as a novel oncolytic viral therapy system for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 44:1465–1477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blok VT, Daha MR, Tijsma O, et al (2000) A possible role of CD46 for the protection in vivo of human renal tumor cells from complement-mediated damage. Lab Invest 80:335–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bluming A, Ziegler J (1971) Regression of Burkitt's lymphoma in association with measles infection. Lancet 2:105–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bucheit AD, Kumar S, Grote DM, et al (2003) An oncolytic measles virus engineered to enter cells through the CD20 antigen. Mol Ther 7:62–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell SA, Gromeier M (2005a) Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. I. Cell-external factors: virus entry and receptor interaction. Onkologie 28:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Campbell SA, Gromeier M (2005b) Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. II. Cell-internal factors for conditional growth in neoplastic cells. Onkologie 28:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlson SK, Classic KL, Hadac EM, et al (2006) In vivo quantitation of intratumoral radioisotope uptake using micro-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Mol Imaging Biol 8:324–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cocks BG, Chang CC, Carballido JM, et al (1995) A novel receptor involved in T-cell activation.Nature 376(6537):260–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Collard P, Hendrickse RG, Montefiore D, et al (1961) Vaccination against measles. II. Clinical trial in Nigerian children. BMJ 2(5262):1246–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dadachova E, Carrasco N (2004) The Na/I symporter (NIS): imaging and therapeutic applications. Semin Nucl Med 34:23–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Devaux P, von Messling V, Songsungthong W, et al (2007) Tyrosine 110 in the measles virus phosphoprotein is required to block STAT1 phosphorylation. Virology 360:72–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dingli D, Diaz RM, Bergert ER, et al (2003) Genetically targeted radiotherapy for multiple myeloma. Blood. 102:489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dingli D, Peng KW, Harvey ME, et al (2004) Image-guided radiovirotherapy for multiple myeloma using a recombinant measles virus expressing the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter. Blood 103:1641–1646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dingli D, Kemp BJ, O'Connor MK, et al (2005a) Combined I-124 positron emission tomography/ computed tomography imaging of NIS gene expression in animal models of stably transfected and intravenously transfected tumor. Mol Imaging Biol 8:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dingli D, Peng KW, Harvey ME, et al (2005b) Interaction of measles virus vectors with Auger electron emitting radioisotopes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dingli D, Cascino MD, Josic K, et al (2006) Mathematical modeling of cancer radiovirotherapy. Math Biosci 199:55–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dorig RE, Marcil A, Chropa A, et al (1993) The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus (Edmonston strain). Cell 75:295–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Durrant LG, Spendlove I (2001) Immunization against tumor cell surface complement-regulatory proteins. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2:959–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Enders JF, Peebles TC (1954) Propagation in tissue cultures of cytopathogenic agents from patients with measles. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 86:277–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Enders JF, Katz SL, Milovanovic MV, et al (1960) Studies on an attenuated measles-virus vaccine. I. Development and preparations of the vaccine: technics for assay of effects of vaccination. N Engl J Med 263:153–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fishelson Z, Donin N, Zell S, et al (2003) Obstacles to cancer immunotherapy: expression of membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs) in tumors. Mol Immunol 40:109–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fisher K (2006) Striking out at disseminated metastases: the systemic delivery of oncolytic viruses. Curr Opin Mol Ther 8:301–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Forsyth P, Roldan G, George D, et al (2008) A phase I trial of intratumoral administration of reo-virus in patients with histologically confirmed recurrent malignant gliomas. Mol Ther 16:627–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goffe AP, Laurence GD (1961) Vaccination against measles. I. Preparation and testing of vaccines consisting of living attenuated virus. BMJ 2(5262):1244–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gorter A, Blok VT, Haasnoot WH, et al (1996) Expression of CD46, CD55, and CD59 on renal tumor cell lines and their role in preventing complement-mediated tumor cell lysis. Lab Invest 74:1039–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, et al (2001) Paramyxovirus accessory proteins as interferon antagonists. Microbiol Immunol 45:787–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffin D (2001) Measles virus. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, Straus SE (eds) Fields virology, 5th edn, Lippincott Williams ' Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1551–1585Google Scholar
  43. Griffin DE, Pan CH, Moss WJ (2008) Measles vaccines. Front Biosci 13:1352–1370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grote D, Russell SJ, Cornu TI, et al (2001) Live attenuated measles virus induces regression of human lymphoma xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Blood 97:3746–3754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hadac EM, Peng KW, Nakamura T, et al (2004) Reengineering paramyxovirus tropism. Virology 329:217–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hallak LK, Merchen JR, Storgard CM, et al (2005) Targeted measles virus vector displaying Echistatin infects endothelial cells via alpha(v)beta3 and leads to tumor regression. Cancer Res 65:5292–5300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hammond AL, Plemper RK, Zhang J, et al (2001) Single-chain antibody displayed on a recom-binant measles virus confers entry through the tumor-associated carcinoembryonic antigen. J Virol 75:2087–2096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hangartner L, Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H (2006) Antiviral antibody responses: the two extremes of a wide spectrum. Nat Rev Immunol 6:231–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hara T, Suzuki Y, Semba T, et al (1995) High expression of membrane cofactor protein of complement (CD46) in human leukaemia cell lines: implication of an alternatively spliced form containing the STA domain in CD46 up-regulation. Scand J Immunol 42:581–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haralambieva I, Iankov I, Hasegawa K, et al (2007) Engineering oncolytic measles virus to circumvent the intracellular innate immune response. Mol Ther 15:588–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hasegawa K, Nakamura T, Harvey M, et al (2006a) The use of a tropism-modified measles virus in folate receptor-targeted virotherapy of ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res 12:6170–6178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hasegawa K, Pham L, O'Connor MK, et al (2006b) Dual therapy of ovarian cancer using measles viruses expressing carcinoembryonic antigen and sodium iodide symporter. Clin Cancer Res 12:1868–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hasegawa K, Hu C, Nakamura T, et al (2007) Affinity thresholds for membrane fusion triggering by viral glycoproteins. J Virol 81:13149–13157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heinzerling L, Künzi V, Oberholzer PA, et al (2005) Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mounts antitumor immune responses in vivo and targets interferon-resistant tumor cells. Blood. 106:2287–2294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hermiston T (2006) A demand for next-generation oncolytic adenoviruses. Curr Opin Mol Ther 8:322–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hill DL (1975) Pharmacology. In: Thomas CC (ed) A review of cyclophosphamide. Thomas Publishers, Springfield, IL pp 60–85Google Scholar
  57. Hoffmann D, Bangan JM, Bayer W, et al (2006) Synergy between expression of fusogenic membrane proteins, chemotherapy and facultative virotherapy in colorectal cancer. Gene Ther 13:1534–1544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoster HA, Zanes RP Jr, Von Haam E (1949) Studies in Hodgkin's syndrome; the association of viral hepatitis and Hodgkin's disease: a preliminary report. Cancer Res 9:473–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hsu EC, Dörig RE, Sarangi F, et al (1997) Artificial mutations and natural variations in the CD46 molecules from human and monkey cells define regions important for measles virus binding. J Virol 71:6144–6154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hsu EC, Sarangi F, Iorio C, et al (1998) A single amino acid change in the hemagglutinin protein of measles virus determines its ability to bind CD46 and reveals another receptor on marmoset B cells. J Virol 72:2905–2916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Huebner RJ, Rowe WP, Schatten WE, et al (1956) Studies on the use of viruses in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Cancer 9:1211–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Iankov ID, Blechacz B, Liu C, et al (2007) Infected cell carriers: a new strategy for systemic delivery of oncolytic measles viruses in cancer virotherapy. Mol Ther 15:114–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jacobson DR, Zolla-Pazner S (1986) Immunosuppression and infection in multiple myeloma. Semin Oncol 13:282–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Juhl H, Helmig F, Baltzer K, et al (1997) Frequent expression of complement resistance factors CD46, CD55, and CD59 on gastrointestinal cancer cells limits the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody 17–1A. J Surg Oncol 64:222–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Katz SL (1965) Immunization with live attenuated measles virus vaccines: five years' experience. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 16:222–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Katz S (1996) The history of measles virus and the development and utilization of measles virus vaccines. In: Plotkins S, Fantini B (eds) Vaccinia, vaccination and vaccinology: Jenner Pasteur and their successors. Elsevier, Paris, pp 265–270Google Scholar
  67. Katz SL, Kempe CH, Black FL, et al (1960) Studies on an attenuated measles-virus vaccine. VIII. General summary and evaluation of the results of vaccine. N Engl J Med 263:180–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaufmann M, Lindner P, Honegger A, et al (2002) Crystal structure of the anti-His tag antibody 3D5 single-chain fragment complexed to its antigen. J Mol Biol 318:135–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kelly E, Russell SJ (2007) History of oncolytic viruses: genesis to genetic engineering. Mol Ther 15:651–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kemper C, Leung M, Stephensen CB, et al (2001) Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) expression in transgenic mice. Clin Exp Immunol 124:180–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kinoh H, Inoue M (2008) New cancer therapy using genetically-engineered oncolytic Sendai virus vector. Front Biosci 13:2327–2334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kinugasa N, Higashi T, Nouso K, et al (1999) Expression of membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) in human liver diseases. Br J Cancer 80:1820–1825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Klasse PJ, Sattentau QJ (2002) Occupancy and mechanism in antibody-mediated neutralization of animal viruses. J Gen Virol 83:2091–2108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kobune F, Sakata H, Sugiura A (1990) Marmoset lymphoblastoid cells as a sensitive host for isolation of measles virus. J Virol 64:700–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kobune F, Takahashi H, Terao K, et al (1996) Nonhuman primate models of measles. Lab Anim Sci 46:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lecouturier V, Fayolle J, Caballero M, et al (1996) Identification of two amino acids in the hemag-glutinin glycoprotein of measles virus (MV) that govern hemadsorption HeLa cell fusion, and CD46 downregulation: phenotypic markers that differentiate vaccine and wild-type MV strains. J Virol 70:4200–4204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lichty BD, Power AT, Stojdl DF, et al (2004) Vesicular stomatitis virus: re-inventing the bullet. Trends Mol Med 10:210–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP (1992) Membrane cofactor protein. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 178:45–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Liu TC, Galanis E, Kirn D (2007) Clinical trial results with oncolytic virotherapy: a century of promise, a decade of progress. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 4:101–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lorence RM, Roberts MS, O'Neil JD, et al (2007) Phase 1 clinical experience using intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic Newcastle disease virus. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 7:157–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Manchester M, Rall GF (2001) Model systems: transgenic mouse models for measles pathogene-sis. Trends Microbiol 9:19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mazzaferri EL, Kloos RT (2001) Clinical review 128: current approaches to primary therapy for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1447–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McDonald CJ, Erlichman C, Ingle JM, et al (2006) A measles virus vaccine strain derivative as a novel oncolytic agent against breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 99:177–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McQuillan GM, Kruszon-Moran D, Hyde TB, et al (2007) Seroprevalence of measles antibody in the US population, 1999–2004. J Infect Dis 196:1459–1464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mota HC (1973) Infantile Hodgkin's disease: remission after measles. BMJ 2(5863):421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mrkic B, Pavolvic J, Rülicke T, et al (1998) Measles virus spread and pathogenesis in genetically modified mice. J Virol 72:7420–7427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mrkic B, Odermatt B, Klein MA, et al (2000) Lymphatic dissemination and comparative pathology of recombinant measles viruses in genetically modified mice. J Virol 74:1364–1672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Munguia A, Ota T, Meist T, Russell SJ (2008) Cell carriers to deliver oncolytic viruses to sites of myeloma tumor growth. Gene Ther 15:797–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Murray KP, Mathure S, Kaul R, et al (2000) Expression of complement regulatory proteins-CD 35, CD 46, CD 55, and CD 59-in benign and malignant endometrial tissue. Gynecol Oncol 76:176–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Myers R, Greiner S, Harvey M, et al (2005) Oncolytic activities of approved mumps and measles vaccines for therapy of ovarian cancer. Cancer Gene Ther 12:593–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Myers RM, Greiner S, Harvey M, et al (2007) Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology of intravenous MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus administered with or without cyclophosphamide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 82:700–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nagy N, Maeda A, Bandobashi K, et al (2002) SH2D1A expression in Burkitt lymphoma cells is restricted to EBV positive group I lines and is downregulated in parallel with immunoblastic transformation. Int J Cancer 100:433–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nakamura T, Russell SJ (2004) Oncolytic measles viruses for cancer therapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther 4:1685–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nakamura T, Peng KW, Vongpunsawad S, et al (2004) Antibody-targeted cell fusion. Nat Biotechnol 22:331–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nakamura T, Peng KW, Harvey M, et al (2005) Rescue and propagation of fully retargeted onco-lytic measles viruses. Nat Biotechnol 23:209–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Naniche D, Varior-Krishnan G, Cervoni F, et al (1993) Human membrane cofactor protein (CD46) acts as a cellular receptor for measles virus. J Virol 67:6025–6032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Naniche D, Yeh A, Eto D, et al (2000) Evasion of host defenses by measles virus: wild-type measles virus infection interferes with induction of alpha/beta interferon production. J Virol 74:7478–7484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Newman W, Southam CM (1954) Virus treatment in advanced cancer; a pathological study of fifty-seven cases. Cancer 7:106–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nielsen L, Blixenkrone-Møller M, Thylstrup M, et al (2001) Adaptation of wild-type measles virus to CD46 receptor usage. Arch Virol 146:197–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ohno S, Ono N, Takeda M, et al (2004) Dissection of measles virus V protein in relation to its ability to block alpha/beta interferon signal transduction. J Gen Virol 85:2991–2999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Okuno Y, Asada T, Yamanishi K, et al (1978) Studies on the use of mumps virus for treatment of human cancer. Biken J 21:37–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Oldstone MB, Lewicki H, Thomas D, et al (1999) Measles virus infection in a transgenic model: virus-induced immunosuppression and central nervous system disease. Cell 98:629–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ong HT, Timm MM, Greip PR, et al (2006) Oncolytic measles virus targets high CD46 expression on multiple myeloma cells. Exp Hematol 34:713–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ong HT, Hasagawa K, Dietz KB, et al (2007) Evaluation of T cells as carriers for systemic measles virotherapy in the presence of antiviral antibodies. Gene Ther 14:324–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ordman CW, Jennings CG, Janeway CA (1944) Chemical clinical, and immunological studies on the products of human plasma fractionation. XII. The use of concentrated normal human serum gamma globulin (human immune serum globulin) in the prevention and attenuation of measles. J Clin Invest 23:541–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Osunkoya BO, Ukaejiofo EO, Ajayi O, et al (1990) Evidence that circulating lymphocytes act as vehicles or viraemia in measles. West Afr J Med 9:35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Palosaari H, Parisien JP, Rodriguez JJ, et al (2003) STAT protein interference and suppression of cytokine signal transduction by measles virus V protein. J Virol 77:7635–7644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Paraskevakou G, Allen C, Nakamura T, et al (2007) Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-retargeted measles virus strains effectively target EGFR- or EGFRvIII-expressing gliomas. Mol Ther 15:677–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Peng KW, Ahmann GJ, Pham L, et al (2001) Systemic therapy of myeloma xenografts by an attenuated measles virus. Blood 98:2002–2007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Peng KW, Facteau S, Wegman T, et al (2002a) Intraperitoneal therapy of ovarian cancer using an engineered measles virus. Cancer Res 62:4656–4662Google Scholar
  111. Peng KW, TenEyck CJ, Gallanis E, et al (2002b) Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of trackable viruses expressing soluble marker peptides. Nat Med 8:527–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Peng KW, Donovan KA, Schneider U, et al (2003a) Oncolytic measles viruses displaying a single-chain antibody against CD38, a myeloma cell marker. Blood 101:2557–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Peng KW, Frenzke M, Meyers R, et al (2003b) Biodistribution of oncolytic measles virus after intra-peritoneal administration into Ifnar-CD46Ge transgenic mice. Hum Gene Ther 14:1565–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Peng K-W, Holler PD, Orr BA, et al (2004) Targeting membrane fusion to specific peptide/MHC complexes through a high-affinity T-cell receptor. Gene Ther 11:1234–1239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Peng KW, Hada EM, Anderson BD, et al (2006) Pharmacokinetics of oncolytic measles virother-apy: eventual equilibrium between virus and tumor in an ovarian cancer xenograft model. Cancer Gene Ther 13:732–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Peng KW, Pham L, Ye H, et al (2008) Organ distribution of gene expression after intravenous infusion of targeted and untargeted lentiviral vectors. Gene Ther 8:1456–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Phuong LK, Allen C, Peng KW, et al (2003) Use of a vaccine strain of measles virus genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen as a novel therapeutic agent against glioblas-toma multiforme. Cancer Res 63:2462–2469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Radecke F, Spielhofer P, Schneider H, et al (1995) Rescue of measles viruses from cloned DNA. Embo J 14:5773–5784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Reid T, Galanis E, Abbruzzese J, et al (2002) Hepatic arterial infusion of a replication-selective oncolytic adenovirus (dl1520): phase II viral, immunologic, and clinical endpoints. Cancer Res 62:6070–6079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P (2006) A perspective view of sodium iodide symporter research and its clinical implications. Eur J Endocrinol 155:495–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Riley-Vargas RC, Gill DB, Kemper C, et al (2004) CD46: expanding beyond complement regulation. Trends Immunol 25:496–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rota JS, Wang ZD, Rota PA, et al (1994) Comparison of sequences of the H, F, and N coding genes of measles virus vaccine strains. Virus Res 31:317–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Russell S (1994) Replicating vectors for cancer therapy: a question of strategy. Semin Cancer Biol 5:437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Russell SJ, Peng KW (2007) Viruses as anticancer drugs. Trends Pharmacol Sci 28:326–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Scallan CD, Jiang H, Liu T, et al (2006) Human immunoglobulin inhibits liver transduction by A AV vectors at low AAV2 neutralizing titers in SCID mice. Blood 107:1810–1817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schneider U, Bulloughh F, Vongpunsawad S, et al (2000) Recombinant measles viruses efficiently entering cells through targeted receptors. J Virol 74: 9928–9936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schwarz AJ, Boyer PA, Zirbel LW, et al (1960) Experimental vaccination against measles. I. Tests of live measles and distemper vaccine in monkeys and two human volunteers under laboratory conditions. JAMA 173:861–867Google Scholar
  128. Seya T, Hara T, Matsumoto M, et al (1990) Quantitative analysis of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) of complement. High expression of MCP on human leukemia cell lines, which is down-regulated during cell differentiation. J Immunol 145:238–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Shaffer JA, Bellini WJ, Rota PA (2003) The C protein of measles virus inhibits the type I inter-feron response. Virology 315:389–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shen Y, Nemunaitis J (2006)Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for cancer treatment. Cancer Gene Ther 13:975–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Shimizu Y, Hasumi K, Okudaira Y, et al (1988) Immunotherapy of advanced gynecologic cancer patients utilizing mumps virus. Cancer Detect Prev 12:487–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Simpson KL, Jones A, Norman S, et al (1997) Expression of the complement regulatory proteins decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) and CD59 in the normal human uterine cervix and in premalignant and malignant cervical disease. Am J Pathol 151:1455–1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sinkovics JG, Horvath JC (2000) Newcastle disease virus (NDV): brief history of its oncolytic strains. J Clin Virol 16:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Southam CM, Moore AE (1952) Clinical studies of viruses as antineoplastic agents with particular reference to Egypt 101 virus. Cancer 5: 1025–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Steinberg A (2001) Cyclophosphamide. In: Austen K et al. (eds) Therapeutic immunology. Blackwell, Malden, pp 31–50Google Scholar
  136. Stojdl DF, Lichty B, Knowles S, et al (2000) Exploiting tumor-specific defects in the interferon pathway with a previously unknown oncolytic virus. Nat Med 6(7):821–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stojdl DF,, et al (2003) VSV strains with defects in their ability to shutdown innate immunity are potent systemic anti-cancer agents. Cancer Cell 4:263–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Strong JE, Lichty B, ten Oever BR, et al (1998) The molecular basis of viral oncolysis: usurpation of the Ras signaling pathway by reovirus. EMBO J 17:3351–3362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tai CK, Kasahara N (2008) Replication-competent retrovirus vectors for cancer gene therapy. Front Biosci 13:3083–3095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Takeda M, Kato A, Kobune F, et al (1998) Measles virus attenuation associated with transcrip-tional impediment and a few amino acid changes in the polymerase and accessory proteins. J Virol 72:8690–8696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Takeuchi K, Kadota SI, Takeda M, et al (2003) Measles virus V protein blocks interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta but not IFN-gamma signaling by inhibiting STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation. FEBS Lett 545:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Taqi AM, Abdurrahman AB, Yakubu AM, et al (1981) Regression of Hodgkin's disease after measles. Lancet 1:1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thorne SH, Hwang TH, O'Gorman WE, et al (2007) Rational strain selection and engineering creates a broad-spectrum, systemically effective oncolytic poxvirus JX-963. J Clin Invest 117:3350–3358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thorsteinsson L, O'Dowd GM, Harrington PM, et al (1998) The complement regulatory proteins CD46 and CD59, but not CD55, are highly expressed by glandular epithelium of human breast and colorectal tumour tissues. APMIS 106:869–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ungerechts G, Springfield C, Frenzke ME, et al (2007a) An immunocompetent murine model for oncolysis with an armed and targeted measles virus. Mol Ther 15:1991–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ungerechts G, Springfield C, Frenzke ME, et al (2007b) Lymphoma chemovirotherapy: CD20-targeted and convertase-armed measles virus can synergize with fludarabine. Cancer Res 67:10939–10947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. van Binnendijk RS, van der Heijden RW, van Amerongen G, et al (1994) Viral replication and development of specific immunity in macaques after infection with different measles virus strains. J Infect Dis 170:443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Varsano S, Rashkovsky L, Shapiro H, et al (1998) Human lung cancer cell lines express cell membrane complement inhibitory proteins and are extremely resistant to complement-mediated lysis; a comparison with normal human respiratory epithelium in vitro, and an insight into mechanism(s) of resistance. Clin Exp Immunol 113:173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vongpunsawad S, Oezgun M, Braun W, et al (2004) Selectively receptor-blind measles viruses: identification of residues necessary for SLAM- or CD46-induced fusion and their localization on a new hemagglutinin structural model. J Virol 78:302–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Waehler R, Russell SJ, Curiel DT (2007) Engineering targeted viral vectors for gene therapy. Nat Rev Genet 8:573–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang Y, Yuan F (2006) Delivery of viral vectors to tumor cells: extracellular transport, systemic distribution, and strategies for improvement. Ann Biomed Eng 34:114–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wein LM, Wu JT, Kirn DH (2003) Validation and analysis of a mathematical model of a replication-competent oncolytic virus for cancer treatment: implications for virus design and delivery. Cancer Res 63:1317–1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Xie M, Tanaka K, Ono N, et al (1999) Amino acid substitutions at position 481 differently affect the ability of the measles virus hemagglutinin to induce cell fusion in monkey and marmoset cells co-expressing the fusion protein. Arch Virol 144:1689–1699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Yamakawa M, Yamada K, Tsuge T, et al (1994) Protection of thyroid cancer cells by complement-regulatory factors. Cancer 73:2808–2817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Yanagi Y, Takeda M, Ohno S et al (2006) Measles virus receptors and tropism. Jpn J Infect Dis 59:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Yu W, Fang H (2007) Clinical trials with oncolytic adenovirus in China. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 7:141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ziegler JL (1976) Spontaneous remission in Burkitt's lymphoma. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 44:61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Zingher A, Mortimer P (2005) Convalescent whole blood, plasma and serum in the prophylaxis of measles: JAMA, 12 April, 1926; 1180–1181. Rev Med Virol 15:407–418; discussion 418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zygiert Z (1971) Hodgkin's disease: remissions after measles. Lancet 1(7699):593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations