Advertisement

Spatio-Temporal Adaptive Inverse Filtering in the Wave Domain

  • Sascha Spors
  • Herbert Buchner
  • Rudolf Rabenstein
Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)

The sound quality for acoustical communication, information, and entertainment is often subject to impairments by room reflections and undesired noise sources. As a remedy, various signal processing techniques have been developed for different applications, like acoustic echo cancelation and active noise control. Starting from the single channel case, these techniques have recently been extended to multiple channels. These extensions increased the intricacy of the original problem by the added complexity of the multichannel case. The effect was that the resulting techniques like multichannel active listening room compensation and multichannel active noise control appeared as unrelated solutions to different kinds of problems. This chapter gives a unifying description of these spatio-temporal adaptive methods on the perspective of sound reproduction by tracing them back to the fundamental problem of inverse filtering. After analyzing the problems of an adaptive solution, eigenspace adaptive filtering is introduced as a concept for decoupling the multichannel problem. Unfortunately, this concept is not straightforward applicable in its pure form, since it requires data-dependent transformations. Therefore, an approximate solution called wave-domain adaptive filtering is introduced. It has the advantage of being data independent and still performs a close-to-ideal decoupling. Based on the unifying inverse filtering description, the application of wave-domain adaptive filtering to active listening room compensation and to active noise control is shown.

Keywords

Secondary Source Primary Path Virtual Source Secondary Path Active Noise Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, New York, NY, USA: Dover Publications, 1972.MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Ajdler, M. Vetterli: The plenacoustic function, sampling and reconstruction, Proc. ICASSP ’03, 5, 616–619, Hong Kong, 2003.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Bech: Timbral aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms I, JASA, 97(3), 1717–1726, March 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Bech: Timbral aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms II, JASA, 99(6), 3539–3549, June 1996.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Bech: Spatial aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms, JASA, 103(1), 434–445, Jan. 1998.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Benesty, D. R. Morgan, M. M. Sondhi: A better understanding and an improved solution to the specific problems of stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation, IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, 6(2), 156–165, March 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Bouchard, S. Quednau: Multichannel recursive-least-squares algorithms and fast-transversal-filter algorithms for active noise control and sound reproduction systems, IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, 8(5), 606–618, September 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Buchner, S. Spors, W. Kellermann: Full-duplex systems for sound field recording and auralization based on wave field synthesis, Proc. 116th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Berlin, Germany, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Buchner, S. Spors, W. Kellermann: Wave-domain adaptive filtering: Acoustic echo cancellation for full-duplex systems based on wave-field synthesis, Proc. ICASSP ’04, 4, 117–120, Montreal, Canada, 2004.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Buchner, S. Spors, W. Kellermann: Wave-domain adaptive filtering for acoustic human-machine interfaces based on wavefield analysis and synthesis, Proc. EUSIPCO ’04, 1385–1388, Vienna, Austria, 2004.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Caulkins, O. Warusfel: Characterization of the reverberant sound field emitted by a wave field synthesis driven loudspeaker array, Proc. 120th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Paris, France, May 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. de Bruijn: Application of Wave Field Synthesis in Videoconferencing, PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2004.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Dewhirst, S. Zielinski, P. Jackson, F. Rumsey: Objective assessment of spatial localization attributes of surround-sound reproduction systems, Proc. 118th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Barcelona, Spain, May 2005.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Garas: Adaptive 3D Sound Systems, Norwell, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P.-A. Gauthier, A. Berry: Sound-field reproduction in-room using optimal control techniques: Simulations in the frequency domain, JASA, 117(2), 662–678, Feb. 2005.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. H. Golub. C. F. Van Loan: Matrix Computations, Baltimore, MD, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Griesinger: Multichannel sound systems and their interaction with the room, Proc. 16th International Conference on Audio, Acoustics, and Small Places, Audio Engineering Society (AES), 159–173, Oct./Nov. 1998.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Haykin: Adaptive Filter Theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Herbordt, S. Nakamura, S. Spors, H. Buchner, W. Kellermann: Wave field cancellation using wave-domain adaptive filtering, Proc. HSCMA ’95, Piscataway, PA, USA, 2005.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Hulsebos: Auralization using Wave Field Synthesis, PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Hulsebos, D. de Vries, E. Bourdillat: Improved microphone array configurations for auralization of sound fields by wave field synthesis, Proc. 110th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Amsterdam, Netherlands, May 2001.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Hulsebos, T. Schuurmanns, D. de Vries, R. Boone: Circular microphone array recording for discrete multichannel audio recording, Proc. 114th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Amsterdam, Netherlands, March 2003.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. M. Jones, A. Kennedy, T. D. Abhayapala: On dimensionality of multipath fields: Spatial extent and richness, Proc. ICASSP ’02, 3, 2837–2840, Orlando, FL, USA, May 2002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders: Fundamentals of Acoustics, 4th ed., New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Klehs, T. Sporer: Wave field synthesis in the real world: Part 1 – In the living room, 114th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 2003.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. M. Kuo, D. R. Morgan: Active Noise Control Systems – Algorithms and DSP Implementations, New York, NY, USA: Wiley, June 1996.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Miyoshi, Y. Kaneda: Inverse filtering of room acoustics, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 36(2), 145–152, February 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. M. Morse, H. Feshbach: Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I, New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1953.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Omura, M. Yada, H. Saruwatari, S. Kajita, K. Takeda, F. Itakura: Compensating of room acoustic transfer functions affected by change of room temperature, Proc. ICASSP ’99, Phoenix, AZ, USA, March 1999.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer: Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1999.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. Peretti, S. Cecchi, L. Palestini, F. Piazza: A novel approach to active noise control based on wave domain adaptive filtering, Proc. WASPAA ’07, New Paltz, USA, Oct. 2007.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Petrausch, S. Spors, R. Rabenstein: Simulation and visualization of room compensation for wave field synthesis with the functional transformation method, Proc. 119th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), New York, USA, 2005.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Rabenstein, S. Spors: Wave field synthesis techniques for spatial sound reproduction, in E. Haensler, G. Schmidt (eds.), Topics in Acoustic Echo and Noise Control, 517–545, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. M. Sondhi, D. R. Morgan, J. L. Hall: Stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation – an overview of the fundamental problem, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2(8), 148–151, August 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. Sporer, B. Klehs: Wave field synthesis in the real world: Part 2 – In the movie theatre, Proc. 116th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Berlin, Germany, May 2005.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Spors, H. Buchner, R. Rabenstein: Adaptive listening room compensation for spatial audio systems, Proc. EUSIPCO ’04, 1381–1384, Vienna, Austria, 2004.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Spors, H. Buchner, R. Rabenstein: Efficient active listening room compensation for wave field synthesis, Proc. 116th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Berlin, Germany, 2004.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Spors, H. Buchner, R. Rabenstein: A novel approach to active listening room compensation for wave field synthesis using wave-domain adaptive filtering, Proc. ICASSP ’04, 4, 29-32, Montreal, Canada, 2004.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Spors, M. Renk, R. Rabenstein: Limiting effects of active room compensation using wave field synthesis, Proc. 118th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Barcelona, Spain, May 2005.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Spors, H. Buchner, R. Rabenstein: Eigenspace adaptive filtering for efficient pre-equalization of acoustic MIMO systems, Proc. EUSIPCO ’06, Florence, Italy, Sept. 2006.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Spors, R. Rabenstein: Evaluation of the circular harmonics decomposition for WDAF-based active listening room compensation, Proc. 28th AES Conference: The Future of Audio Technology – Surround and Beyond, Audio Engineering Society (AES), 134–149, Pitea, Sweden, June/July 2006.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Spors, R. Rabenstein: Spatial aliasing artifacts produced by linear and circular loudspeaker arrays used for wave field synthesis, Proc. 120th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Paris, France, May 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Spors: Active Listening Room Compensation for Spatial Sound Reproduction Systems, PhD thesis, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 2006.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Spors: An analytic secondary source selection criteria for wave field synthesis, Proc. DAGA ’07, Stuttgart, Germany, March 2007.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    S. Spors, J. Ahrens: Analysis of near-field effects of wave field synthesis using linear loudspeaker arrays, Proc. 30th International AES Conference, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Saariselkä, Finland, March 2007.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Spors: Extension of an analytic secondary source selection criterion for wave field synthesis, Proc. 123th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), New York, USA, Oct. 2007.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. Spors, H. Buchner: An approach to massive multichannel broadband feedforward active noise control using wave-domain adaptive filtering, Proc. WASPAA ’07, New Paltz, USA, Oct. 2007.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. W. Start: Direct Sound Enhancement by Wave Field Synthesis, PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 1997.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Teutsch: Modal Array Signal Processing: Principles and Applications of Acoustic Wavefield Decomposition, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences 348, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2007.MATHGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. N. G. Verheijen: Sound Reproduction by Wave Field Synthesis, PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 1997.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Vogel: Application of Wave Field Synthesis in Room Acoustics, PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 1993.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    E. J. Völker: To nearfield monitoring of multichannel reproduction – Is the acoustics of the living room sufficient?, Proc. Tonmeistertagung, Hannover, Germany, 1998.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    E. J. Völker: Home cinema surround sound – Acoustics and neighbourhood, Proc. 100th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society (AES), Copenhagen, Denmark, May 1996.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. J. Völker, W. Teuber, A. Bob: 5.1 in the living room – on acoustics of multichannel reproduction, Proc. Tonmeistertagung, Hannover, Germany, 2002.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. G. Williams: Fourier Acoustics: Sound Radiation and Nearfield Acoustical Holography, London, GB: Academic Press, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sascha Spors
    • 1
  • Herbert Buchner
    • 1
  • Rudolf Rabenstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Deutsche Telekom LaboratoriesBerlin University of TechnologyBerlinGermany
  2. 2.University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations