In this paper we show how Conceptual Graphs (CG) are a powerful metaphor for identifying and understanding the W3C Resource Description Framework. We also presents CG as a target language and graph homomorphism as an abstract machine to interpret/implement RDF/S, SPARQL and Rules. We show that CG components can be used to implement such notions as named graphs and properties as resources.

In brief, we think that CG are an excellent framework to progress in the Semantic Web because the W3C now considers that RDF graphs are– along with XML trees – one of the two standard formats for the Web.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alkhateeb, F., Baget, J.-F., Euzenat, J.: RDF with Regular xpressions. Technical Report RR-6191, http://hal.inria.fr/inria-00144922/en
  2. 2.
    Anyanwu, M., Maduko, A., Sheth, A.: SPARQL2L: Towards Support for Subgraph Extraction Queries in RDF Databases. In: Proc. WWW 2007, Banff, Alberta, Canada (May 2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baget, J.-F.: RDF Entailment as a Graph Homomorphism. In: Gil, Y., Motta, E., Benjamins, V.R., Musen, M.A. (eds.) ISWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3729, pp. 82–96. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buffa, M., Gandon, F., Erto, G.: A Wiki on the Semantic Web. In: Rech, J., Decker, B., Ras, E. (eds.) Emerging Technologies for Semantic Web Environments: Techniques, Methods and Applications, Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering (IESE), Germany (July 2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carroll, J.J., Bizer, C., Hayes, P., Stickler, P.: Named Graphs, Provenance and Trust. In: Proc. of WWW 2005, Chiba, Japan (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chein, M., Mugnier, M.-L.: Conceptual Graphs: Fundamental Notions. Revue d’Intelligence Artificielle 6(4), 365–406 (1992)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corby, O., Dieng-Kuntz, R., Faron-Zucker, C.: Querying the semantic web with corese search engine. In: Lopez de Mantaras, R., Saitta, L. (eds.) Proc. of the 16th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004), Prestigious Applications of Intelligent Systems, Valencia, Spain, August 22-27, pp. 705–709 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corby, O., Dieng-Kuntz, R., Faron-Zucker, C., Gandon, F.: Ontology-based Approximate Query Processing for Searching the Semantic Web with Corese. INRIA Research Report RR-5621, INRIA (July 2005) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Corby, O., Dieng-Kuntz, R., Faron-Zucker, C., Gandon, F.: Searching the Semantic Web: Approximate Query Processing based on Ontologies. IEEE Intelligent Systems & their Applications 21(1), 20–27 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Corby, O., Dieng-Kuntz, R., Hebert, C.: A Conceptual Graph Model for W3C Resource Description Framework. In: Ganter, B., Mineau, G.W. (eds.) ICCS 2000. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1867, pp. 468–482. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Corby, O., Faron-Zucker, C.: Corese: A corporate semantic web engine. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Real World RDF and Semantic Web Applications, 11th International World Wide Web Conference, Hawai, USA, May 7 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Corby, O., Faron-Zucker, C.: Implementation of SPARQL Query Language based on Graph Homomorphism. In: Proc. of the 15th ICCS, Sheffield, UK, pp. 472–475 (July 2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corby, O., Faron-Zucker, C.: RDF/SPARQL Design Pattern for Contextual Metadata. In: Proc. of IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, Silicon Valley, USA (November 2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dau, F.: RDF as Graph-based, Diagrammatic Logic. In: Esposito, F., Raś, Z.W., Malerba, D., Semeraro, G. (eds.) ISMIS 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4203, pp. 332–337. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Detwiler, T.: GLEEN: Regular Paths for ARQ SparQL. Technical report, University of Washington, http://sig.biostr.washington.edu/projects/ontviews/gleen
  16. 16.
    Dieng-Kuntz, R., Corby, O.: Conceptual Graphs for Semantic Web Applications. In: Dau, F., Mugnier, M.-L., Stumme, G. (eds.) ICCS 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3596, pp. 19–50. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Durville, P., Gandon, F.: Sewese: Semantic Web Server. In: WWW 2007 Developers track, Banff, Canada (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gandon, F.: Distributed Artificial Intelligence And Knowledge Management: Ontologies and Multi-Agents Systems for a Corporate Semantic Web. PhD thesis, university of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (November 2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gandon, F., Bottollier, V., Corby, O., Durville, P.: RDF/XML Source Declaration, W3C Member Submission (September 2007), http://www.w3.org/Submission/rdfsource
  20. 20.
    Gandon, F., Bottollier, V., Corby, O., Durville, P.: RDF/XML Source Declaration. In: Proc. of IADIS International Conference WWW/Internet, Vila Real, Portugal (October 2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giboin, A., Gandon, F., Gronnier, N., Guigard, C., Corby, O.: Comment ne pas perdre de vue les usage(r)s dans la construction d’une application à base d’ontologies ? retour d’expérience sur le projet KmP. In: Jaulent, M.C. (ed.) Actes des 16e Journées francophones d’Ingénierie des connaissances (IC 2005), Grenoble. France, pp. 133–144 (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hayes, J., Gutierrez, C.: Bipartite Graphs as Intermediate Model for RDF. In: Proc. International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hebert, C.: Modèle de traitement de RDF basé sur les graphes conceptuels. Master thesis, I3S, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khelif, K., Dieng-Kuntz, R., Barbry, P.: An Ontology-based Approach to Support Text Mining and Information Retrieval in the Biological Domain. Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS), Special Issue on Ontologies and their Applications (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kochut, K.J., Janik, M.: SPARQLeR: Extended SPARQL for Semantic Association Discovery. In: Franconi, E., Kifer, M., May, W. (eds.) ESWC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4519, pp. 145–159. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin, P.: Exploitation de graphes conceptuels et de documents structurs et hypertextes pour l’acquisition de connaissances et la recherche d’informations. PhD thesis, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (October 1996) Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martin, P., Eklund, P.: Conventions for Knowledge Representation via RDF. In: Proc. of WebNet 2000, San Antonio, Texas, USA (November 2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mugnier, M.-L., Chein, M.: Représenter des connaissances et raisonner avec des graphes. Revue d’IA 10(1), 7–56 (1996)MATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rudolph, S., Krtzsch, M., Hitzler, P.: Quo Vadis, CS? On the (non)-Impact of Conceptual Structures on the Semantic Web. In: Conceptual Structures: Knowledge Architectures for Smart Applications, Proc. of the 15th ICCS, Sheffield, UK. LNCS. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salvat, E., Mugnier, M.-L.: Sound and Complete Forward and Backward Chainings of Graph Rules. In: Proc. of the 4th ICCS, Sydney, Australia. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1115, pp. 248–262. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Southey, F., Linders, J.G.: Notio - a java API for developing CG tools. In: Proc. ICCS, pp. 262–271 (1999)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sowa, J.: Conceptual Graphs for a Database Interface. IBM Journal of Research and Development (4), 336–357 (1976)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sowa, J.: Conceptual Structures - Information Processing in Mind and Machine. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1984)MATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stoermer, H., Palmisano, I., Redavid, D., Iannone, L., Bouquet, P., Semeraro, G.: RDF and Contexts: Use of SPARQL and Named Graphs to Achieve Contextualization. In: Proc. of the 1st Jena User Conference, Bristol, UK (2006)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhong, J., Zhu, H., Li, J., Yu, Y.: Conceptual graph matching for semantic search. In: Priss, U., Corbett, D.R., Angelova, G. (eds.) ICCS 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2393, pp. 92–106. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivier Corby
    • 1
  1. 1.INRIA Edelweiss TeamSophia Antipolis cedex 

Personalised recommendations