Efficient Craig Interpolation for Linear Diophantine (Dis)Equations and Linear Modular Equations

  • Himanshu Jain
  • Edmund Clarke
  • Orna Grumberg
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5123)

Abstract

The use of Craig interpolants has enabled the development of powerful hardware and software model checking techniques. Efficient algorithms are known for computing interpolants in rational and real linear arithmetic. We focus on subsets of integer linear arithmetic. Our main results are polynomial time algorithms for obtaining interpolants for conjunctions of linear diophantine equations, linear modular equations (linear congruences), and linear diophantine disequations. We show the utility of the proposed interpolation algorithms for discovering modular/divisibility predicates in a counterexample guided abstraction refinement (CEGAR) framework. This has enabled verification of simple programs that cannot be checked using existing CEGAR based model checkers.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    SATABS 1.9 website, http://www.verify.ethz.ch/satabs/
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Yices 1.0.11 website, http://yices.csl.sri.com/
  4. 4.
    PARI/GP, Version 2.3.2 (2006), http://pari.math.u-bordeaux.fr/
  5. 5.
    Bockmayr, A., Weispfenning, V.: Solving numerical constraints. In: Robinson, A., Voronkov, A. (eds.) Handbook of Automated Reasoning, pp. 751–842 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cimatti, A., Griggio, A., Sebastiani, R.: Efficient interpolation in satisfiability modulo theories. In: Ramakrishnan, C.R., Rehof, J. (eds.) TACAS 2008. LNCS, vol. 4963, pp. 367–381. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., Jha, S., Lu, Y., Veith, H.: Counterexample-guided abstraction refinement for symbolic model checking. J. ACM 50(5) (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Craig, W.: Linear reasoning. a new form of the herbrand-gentzen theorem. J. Symb. Log. 22(3), 250–268 (1957)CrossRefMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Henzinger, T.A., Jhala, R., Majumdar, R., McMillan, K.L.: Abstractions from proofs. In: POPL, pp. 232–244. ACM Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jain, H., Clarke, E.M., Grumberg, O.: Efficient craig interpolation for linear diophantine (dis)equations and linear modular equations. Technical Report CMU-CS-08-102, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jhala, R., McMillan, K.L.: A Practical and Complete Approach to Predicate Refinement. In: Hermanns, H., Palsberg, J. (eds.) TACAS 2006 and ETAPS 2006. LNCS, vol. 3920, pp. 459–473. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kapur, D., Majumdar, R., Zarba, C.G.: Interpolation for data structures. In: SIGSOFT 2006/FSE-14, pp. 105–116. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kroening, D., Weissenbacher, G.: Lifting propositional interpolants to the word-level. In: FMCAD, pp. 85–89. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McMillan, K.L.: Interpolation and sat-based model checking. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 1–13. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McMillan, K.L.: An Interpolating Theorem Prover. In: Jensen, K., Podelski, A. (eds.) TACAS 2004. LNCS, vol. 2988, pp. 16–30. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Müller-Olm, M., Seidl, H.: Analysis of modular arithmetic. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 29(5), 29 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nelson, G., Oppen, D.C.: Simplification by cooperating decision procedures. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 1(2), 245–257 (1979)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pudlák, P.: Lower bounds for resolution and cutting plane proofs and monotone computations. J. Symb. Log. 62(3), 981–998 (1997)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rybalchenko, A., Sofronie-Stokkermans, V.: Constraint solving for interpolation. In: Cook, B., Podelski, A. (eds.) VMCAI 2007. LNCS, vol. 4349, pp. 346–362. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schrijver, A.: Theory of linear and integer programming. John Wiley & Sons, NY (1986)MATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yorsh, G., Musuvathi, M.: A combination method for generating interpolants. In: Nieuwenhuis, R. (ed.) CADE 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3632, pp. 353–368. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Himanshu Jain
    • 1
  • Edmund Clarke
    • 1
  • Orna Grumberg
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceCarnegie Mellon University 
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceTechnion - Israel Institute of Technology 

Personalised recommendations