Crankshaft: An Energy-Efficient MAC-Protocol for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

  • G. P. Halkes
  • K. G. Langendoen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4373)

Abstract

This paper introduces Crankshaft, a MAC protocol specifically targeted at dense wireless sensor networks. Crankshaft employs node synchronisation and offset wake-up schedules to combat the main cause of inefficiency in dense networks: overhearing by neighbouring nodes. Further energy savings are gained by using efficient channel polling and contention resolution techniques.

Simulations show that Crankshaft achieves high delivery ratios at low power consumption under the common convergecast traffic pattern in dense networks. This performance is achieved by trading broadcast bandwidth for energy efficiency. Finally, tests with a TinyOS implementation demonstrate the real-world feasibility of the protocol.

Keywords

Wireless Sensor Networks MAC Protocol Dense Networks 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ye, W., Heidemann, J., Estrin, D.: An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the 21st Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), vol. 3, Jun. 2002, pp. 1567–1576. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Dam, T., Langendoen, K.: An adaptive energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the 1st ACM Conf. on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2003), Los Angeles, CA, Nov. 2003, pp. 171–180. ACM, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hill, J., Culler, D.: Mica: a wireless platform for deeply embedded networks. IEEE Micro 22(6), 12–24 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Polastre, J., Hill, J., Culler, D.: Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the 2nd ACM Conf. on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2004), Baltimore, MD, Nov. 2004, pp. 95–107. ACM, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ye, W., Heidemann, J.: Ultra-low duty cycle MAC with scheduled channel polling. Technical Report ISI-TR-604, USC Information Sciences Institute (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    van Hoesel, L., Havinga, P.: A lightweight medium access protocol (LMAC) for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the 1st Int. Workshop on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS 2004), Tokyo, Japan, Jun. (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zheng, T., Radhakrishnan, S., Sarangan, V.: PMAC: an adaptive energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the 19th IEEE Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS’05), pp. 65–72. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Langendoen, K., Baggio, A., Visser, O.: Murphy loves potatoes: Experiences from a pilot sensor network deployment in precision agriculture. In: Proc. of the 14th Int. Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Real-Time Systems (WPDRTS), Rhodes, Greece, Apr. 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Hoiydi, A., Decotignie, J.-D.: WiseMAC: An ultra low power MAC protocol for the downlink of infrastructure wireless sensor networks. In: Proc. of the Ninth Int. Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2004 (ISCC 2004), vol. 1, Jul. 2004, pp. 244–251 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ye, W., Heidemann, J., Estrin, D.: Medium access control with coordinated, adaptive sleeping for wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking 12(3), 493–506 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheng, W., Lee, I-T.A., Singh, N.: Time division hashing (TDH): A new scheduling scheme for wireless ad-hoc networks. In: Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Radio Technologies (ISART), pp. 91–100 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, Y., Ye, W., Heidemann, J.: Energy and latency control in low duty cycle MAC protocols. In: Proc. of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf., New Orleans, LA, USA, March 2005, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jamieson, K., Balakrishnan, H., Tay, Y.C.: Sift: a MAC protocol for event-driven wireless sensor networks. In: Römer, K., Karl, H., Mattern, F. (eds.) EWSN 2006. LNCS, vol. 3868, pp. 260–275. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Varga, A.: The OMNeT++ discrete event simulation system. In: Proc. of the European Simulation Multiconference (ESM’2001), Prague, Czech Republic, Jun. 2001 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Halkes
    • 1
  • K. G. Langendoen
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of TechnologyThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations