Accurate 3D Facial Synthesis for Plastic Surgery Simulation

  • Lei Wu
  • Houqiang Li
  • Nenghai Yu
  • Mingjing Li
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4352)


3D facial synthesis has been an intensive research topic in both image processing and computer graphics. So far common facial synthesizing methods were either statistic model based or laser range scanner (LRS) based. However, these methods could only provide approximate models. In this paper, we present a Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) based 3D facial synthesizing approach, which can build accurate virtual faces for plastic surgery. This approach provides an database free modeling process so that the precision will not be limited by the face database. During modeling, we combine Sobel filter with snake algorithm to extract the 3D facial surface from noised MRI and build Bezier facial model, which facilitates the local geometric control. Furthermore, the proposed photo mapping algorithm help add realistic texture to the model. It avoids the complex and time-consuming texture fitting process while achieves satisfying result.


3D reconstruction 3D face texture mapping plastic surgery 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blanz, V., Vetter, T.: A Morphable Model for the Synthesis of 3D Faces. In: SIGGRAPH 1999 (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burgert, O., Salb, T., Gockel, T., Dillmann, R., Hassfeld, S., Brief, J., Krempien, R., Walz, S., Mühling, J.: A system for facial reconstruction using distraction and symmetry considerations. International Congress Series (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    DeCarlos, D., Metaxas, D., Stone, M.: An anthropometric face model using variational techniques. In: Computer Graphics Proceedings SIGGRAPH (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deng, X.Q.: A Finite Element Analysis of Surgery of the Human Facial Tissues, Columbia University (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DiPaola, S.: Extending the range of facial types. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation (1991)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koch, R.M., Gross, M.H., Carls, F.R.: Simulating Facial Surgery Using Finite Element Models. In: SIGGRAPH 1996 (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koch, R.M., Roth, S.H.M., Gross, M.H., Zimmermann, A.P., Sailer, H.F.: A Framework for Facial Surgery Simulation. In: Proceedings of the 18th spring conference on Computer graphics (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kass, M., Witkin, A., Terzopoulos, D.: Snake: Active Contour Models. International Journal of Computer Vision (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee, W.S., Nadia, M.T.: From Real Faces To Virtual Faces: Problems and Solutions. In: Proc. 3IA 1998, Limoges, France, pp. 5–19 (1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahoor, M.H., Mottaleb, M.A.: Facial Feature Extraction in Color Images Using Enhanced Active Shape Model. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parke, F.I., Waters, K.: Computer Facial Animation. AK Peters (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Phong, B.T.: Illumination for computer generated images. Communications of the ACM 18(6), 311–317 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seo, K.H., Kim, W., Oh, C., Lee, J.J.: Face detection and facial feature extraction using color snake. In: Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takácsa, B., Pieperb, S., Cebralc, J., Kissd, B., Benedekd, B., Szijártód, G.: Facial Modeling for Plastic Surgery Using Magnetic Resonance Imagery and 3D Surface Data. In: Three-dimensional Image Capture and Applications (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thalmann, N.M., Minh, H., Angelis, M., Thalmann, D.: Design, transformation and animation of human faces. Visual Computer (1989)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Todd, J.T., Leonard, S.M., Shaw, R.E., Pittenger, J.B.: The perception of human growth. Scientific American (1980)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walker, K.N., Cootes, T.F., Taylor, C.J.: Locating Salient Facial Features Using Image Invariants. In: International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu, C.Y., Prince, J.L.: Gradient Vector Flow: A New External Force for Snakes. In: CVPR 1997 (1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Wu
    • 1
  • Houqiang Li
    • 1
  • Nenghai Yu
    • 1
  • Mingjing Li
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Science and Technology of ChinaAnhuiChina
  2. 2.Microsoft Research AsiaBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations