Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Nicotine Dosing

  • Geoffrey Ferris Wayne
  • Carrie M. Carpenter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 192)


For more than a half century, tobacco manufacturers have conducted sophisticated internal research to evaluate nicotine delivery, and modified their products to ensure availability of nicotine to smokers and to optimize its effects. Tobacco has proven to be a particularly effective vehicle for nicotine, enabling manipulation of smoke chemistry and of mechanisms of delivery, and providing sensory cues that critically inform patterns of smoking behavior as well as reinforce the impact of nicotine. A range of physical and chemical product design changes provide precise control over the quantity, form, and perception of nicotine dose, and support compensatory behavior, which is driven by the smoker's addiction to nicotine. Cigarette manufacturers also enhance the physiological effects of nicotine through the introduction and use of compounds that interact with nicotine but do not directly alter its form or delivery. A review of internal documents indicates important historical differences, as well as significant differences between commercial brands, underscoring the effectiveness of methods adopted by manufacturers to control nicotine dosing and target the needs of specific populations of smokers through commercial product development. Although the focus of the current review is on the manipulation of nicotine dosing characteristics, the evidence indicates that product design facilitates tobacco addiction through diverse addiction-potentiating mechanisms.


Levulinic Acid Tobacco Industry Nicotine Level Nicotine Dose Nicotine Delivery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoffrey Ferris Wayne
    • 1
  • Carrie M. Carpenter
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Public Health Practice Landmark BuildingHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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