Aspect-Oriented User Requirements Notation: Aspects in Goal and Scenario Models

  • Gunter Mussbacher
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5002)


Technologies based on aspects and applied at the early stages of software development allow requirements engineers to better encapsulate crosscutting concerns in requirements models. The Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation (AoURN) extends the User Requirements Notation (URN) with aspects and thus unifies goal-oriented, scenario-based, and aspect-oriented concepts in one framework. Minimal changes to URN ensure that requirements engineers can continue working with goal and scenario models expressed in a familiar notation. At the same time, concerns in goal and scenario models, regardless of whether these concerns crosscut or not, can be managed across model types. Typical concerns in URN are non-functional requirements (NFRs), use cases, and stakeholder goals. As AoURN expresses concern composition rules with URN itself, it is possible to describe rules in a highly flexible way that is not restricted by any specific composition language. Aspects can improve the modularity, reusability, scalability, and maintainability of URN models. Considering the strong overlap between NFRs and crosscutting concerns, aspects can help bridge the gap between goals and scenarios. On the other hand, Early Aspects (EA) research can benefit from a standardized way of modeling concerns with AoURN.


Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering Aspects Use Case Maps Goal-oriented Requirement Language User Requirements Notation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alencar, F., Moreira, A., Araújo, J., Castro, J., Silva, C., Mylopoulos, J.: Towards an Approach to Integrate i* with Aspects. In: 8th Intl. Bi-Conf. Wksh. on Agent-Oriented Inf. Systems (AOIS 2006) at CAiSE 2006, Luxembourg (June 2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amyot, D.: Introduction to the User Requirements Notation: Learning by Example. Computer Networks 42(3), 285–301 (June 21, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barros, J.-P., Gomes, L.: Toward the Support for Crosscutting Concerns in Activity Diagrams: a Graphical Approach. In: Workshop on Aspect-Oriented Modelling (held with UML 2003), San Francisco, California, USA (October 2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buhr, R.J.A., Casselman, R.S.: Use Case Maps for Object-Oriented Systems. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1996)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chitchyan, R., et al.: Survey of Analysis and Design Approaches. AOSD-Europe Report ULANC-9 (May 2005) (accessed November 2007),
  6. 6.
    Chung, L., Nixon, B.A., Yu, E., Mylopoulos, J.: Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Bruin, H., van Vliet, H.: Quality-Driven Software Architecture Composition. Journal of Systems and Software 66(3), 269–284 (June 15, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Early Aspects website (accessed November 2007),
  9. 9.
    Kaiya, H., Saeki, M.: Weaving Multiple Viewpoint Specifications in Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis. In: 11th Asia-Pacific Software Eng. Conf. (APSEC 2004), Busan, Korea, pp. 418–427. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (November 2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kiczales, G., Lamping, J., Mendhekar, A., Maeda, C., Lopes, C., Loingtier, J.-M., Irwin, J.: Aspect-Oriented Programming. In: Aksit, M., Matsuoka, S. (eds.) ECOOP 1997. LNCS, vol. 1241, pp. 220–242. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Weiss, M.: Visualizing Aspect-Oriented Requirements Scenarios with Use Case Maps. In: International Workshop on Requirements Engineering Visualization (REV 2006), Minneapolis, USA (September 2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Weiss, M.: Visualizing Early Aspects with Use Case Maps. In: Rashid, A., Aksit, M. (eds.) Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development III. LNCS, vol. 4620, pp. 105–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Araújo, J., Moreira, A., Weiss, M.: Visualizing Aspect-Oriented Goal Models with AoGRL. In: 2nd International Workshop on Requirements Engineering Visualization (REV 2007), New Delhi, India (October 2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Whittle, J., Weiss, M.: Flexible and Expressive Composition Rules with Aspect-oriented Use Case Maps (AoUCM). In: 10th International Wksh. on Early Aspects (EA 2007), Vancouver, Canada (March 13, 2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roy, J.-F.: Requirements Engineering with URN: Integrating Goals and Scenarios. MSc. thesis, OCICS, University of Ottawa, Canada (2007) (accessed November 2007),
  16. 16.
    URN Virtual Library (accessed November 2007),
  17. 17.
    User Requirements Notation (URN) - Language Requirements and Framework, ITU-T Recommendation Z.150. Geneva, Switzerland (February 2003) (accessed November 2007),, (accessed November 2007),
  18. 18.
    Whittle, J., Moreira, A., Araújo, J., Jayaraman, P., Elkhodary, A., Rabbi, R.: An Expressive Aspect Composition Language for UML State Diagrams. In: Engels, G., Opdyke, B., Schmidt, D.C., Weil, F. (eds.) MODELS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4735, pp. 514–528. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu, E.: Modeling Strategic Relationships for Process Reengineering. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Canada (1995)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu, Y., Leite, J.C.S.d.P., Mylopoulos, J.: From Goals to Aspects: Discovering Aspects from Requirements Goal Models. In: 12th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2004), Kyoto, Japan (September 2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunter Mussbacher
    • 1
  1. 1.SITEUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations