In 1913 Heller reported the first esophageal myotomy for achalasia through a left thoracotomy. Over the years, the transabdominal approach has been extensively adopted, especially in Europe. More recently, laparoscopy has emerged as the initial intervention of choice in several institutions throughout the world.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Bonavina
    • 1
  • Alberto Peracchia
    • 2
  1. 1.UO Chirurgia GeneraleIstituto Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato Milanese, MilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryCentro di Formazione Universitaria Istituto Clinico HumanitasRozzano (MI)Italy

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