Glaucoma in Infancy and Early Childhood

  • Sharon F. Freedman
  • Suzanne C. Johnston


• Early identification of glaucoma in infants and children by physicians and care providers maximizes the likelihood of preserving useful vision.

• Glaucomas presenting in infancy share unique features related to the corneal and overall stretching of the eye under high intraocular pressure.

• Glaucomas presenting in older children sometimes take the form of refractive error, and their timely diagnosis may rely on careful scrutiny of the optic nerve head configuration and tonometry.

• All children with conditions predisposing to glaucoma should be regularly examined for glaucoma.

• Medical therapy is appropriate first-line therapy for many secondary glaucomas and to help clear the cornea for angle surgery in primary congenital glaucoma.

• Surgical intervention is essential for primary congenital glaucoma, and is often needed for other primary and secondary glaucomas inadequately controlled on medications.

• Successful care of childhood glaucoma requires ophthalmologists experienced in treating these rare conditions, but ultimately also requires a team approach including the family and child among other critical members.


Central Corneal Thickness Trabecular Meshwork Congenital Glaucoma Primary Congenital Glaucoma Persistent Fetal Vasculature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon F. Freedman
    • 1
  • Suzanne C. Johnston
    • 1
  1. 1.Ophthalmology PediatricsDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

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