Advertisement

A Systematic Framework for Designing and Evaluating Persuasive Systems

  • Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
  • Marja Harjumaa
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5033)

Abstract

A growing number of information technology systems and services are being developed to change users’ attitudes or behavior or both. Despite the fact that attitudinal theories from social psychology have been quite extensively applied to the study of user intentions and behavior, these theories have basically provided checklists or rules of thumb rather than systematic design methods or methodologies to develop software solutions. This article is conceptual-theoretical by its nature. It discusses the process of designing and evaluating persuasive systems and describes what kind of content and software functionality may be found at the final product. Seven underlying postulates behind persuasive systems, ways to analyze the user and the use context, and persuasive design strategies and guidelines are highlighted. Based on the works of Fogg, the article also lists techniques for persuasive system content and functionality, describing example software requirements and implementations. Some new techniques are suggested. Moreover, a new categorization of these techniques is proposed, composing of the primary task, dialogue, system credibility, and social support categories.

Keywords

Design functionality and techniques models and frameworks strategies theories 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cassell, M.M., Jackson, C., Cheuvront, B.: Health Communication on the Internet: An Effective Channel for Health Behavior Change. J. Health Commun. 3, 71–79 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cialdini, R.B., Petty, R.E., Cacioppo, J.T.: Attitude and Attitude Change. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 32, 357–404 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Consolvo, S., Everitt, K., Smith, I., Landay, J.A.: Design requirements for technologies that encourage physical activity. In: CHI 2006: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems, pp. 457–466. ACM Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive technology: Using computers to change what we think and do. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive computers: Perspectives and research directions. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Los Angeles, California (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fogg, B.J., Nass, C.I.: Silicon Sycophants: The Effects of Computers that Flatter. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 46 (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fraser, C., Burchell, B., Hay, D., Duveen, G.: Introducing social psychology. Polity, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harjumaa, M., Oinas-Kukkonen, H.: An analysis of the persuasiveness of smoking cessation web sites. In: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Intille, S.S.: Ubiquitous computing technology for just-in-time motivation of behavior change. In: Proceedings of the UbiHealth 2003 Workshop (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee, G., Tsai, C., Griswold, W.G., Raab, F., et al.: PmEB: A mobile phone application for monitoring caloric balance. In: CHI 2006: CHI 2006 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 1013–1018. ACM Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lerbinger, O.: Designs for persuasive communication, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ( (1972)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mathew, A.P.: Using the environment as an interactive interface to motivate positive behavior change in a subway station. In: CHI 2005 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press, Portland (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McGuire, W.J.: Persuasion. In: Miller, G.A. (ed.) Communication, Language, and Meaning Psychological Perspectives. Basic Books, New York (1973)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller, G.R.: On being persuaded: Some basic distinctions. In: Dillard, J.P., Pfau, M. (eds.) The Persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nass, C.I., Steuer, J., Tauber, E.R.: Computers are social actors. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: celebrating interdependence, pp. 72–78. ACM Press, Boston (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Harjumaa, M.: Towards Deeper Understanding of Persuasion in Software and Information Systems. In: Proceedings of The First International Conference on Advances in Human-Computer Interaction (ACHI 2008), Sainte Luce, Martinique, February 10-15 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Petty, R.E., Cacioppo, J.T.: Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. Springer, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robertson, S., Robertson, J.: Mastering the requirements process. Addison-Wesley London, Upper Saddle River (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silva, J.M., Zamarripa, S., Moran, E.B., Tentori, M., et al.: Promoting a healthy lifestyle through a virtual specialist solution. In: CHI 2006: CHI 2006 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 1867–1872. ACM Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Simons, H.W., Morreale, J., Gronbeck, B.: Persuasion in society. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sohn, M., Lee, J.: UP health: Ubiquitously persuasive health promotion with an instant messaging system. In: CHI 2007: CHI 2007 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 2663–2668. ACM Press, New York (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sommerville, I., Sawyer, P.: Requirements engineering: A good practice guide. John Wiley, cop., Chichester (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Todorov, A., Chaiken, S., Henderson, M.D.: The heuristic-systematic model of social information processing. In: Dillard, J.P., Pfau, M. (eds.) The Persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Toscos, T., Faber, A., An, S., Gandhi, M.P.: Chick clique: Persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise. In: CHI 2006: CHI 2006 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 1873–1878. ACM Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
    • 1
  • Marja Harjumaa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Processing ScienceUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Personalised recommendations