A Formal Account of WS-BPEL

  • Alessandro Lapadula
  • Rosario Pugliese
  • Francesco Tiezzi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5052)


We introduce B \(\mathit{lite}\), a lightweight language for web services orchestration designed around some of WS-BPEL peculiar features like partner links, process termination, message correlation, long-running business transactions and compensation handlers. B \(\mathit{lite}\) formal presentation helps clarifying some ambiguous aspects of the WS-BPEL specification, which have led to engines implementing different semantics and, thus, have undermined portability of WS-BPEL programs over different platforms. We illustrate the main features of B \(\mathit{lite}\) by means of many examples, some of which are also exploited to test and compare the behaviour of three of the most known free WS-BPEL engines.


Operational Semantic Parallel Composition Service Instance Compensation Activity Formal Account 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ActiveBPEL 4.1 (September 2007), http://www.active-endpoints.com
  2. 2.
    Apache ODE 1.1.1 (August 2007), http://ode.apache.org
  3. 3.
    Oracle BPEL Process Manager 10.1.3 (December 2007), http://www.oracle.com/technology/bpel
  4. 4.
    Bocchi, L., Laneve, C., Zavattaro, G.: A calculus for long-running transactions. In: Najm, E., Nestmann, U., Stevens, P. (eds.) FMOODS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2884, pp. 124–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, A., Johnston, S., Kelly, K.: Using service-oriented architecture and component-based development to build web service applications, TR, Rational Software Corp. (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bruni, R., Butler, M.J., Ferreira, C., Hoare, C.A.R., Melgratti, H.C., Montanari, U.: Comparing two approaches to compensable flow composition. In: Abadi, M., de Alfaro, L. (eds.) CONCUR 2005. LNCS, vol. 3653, pp. 383–397. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruni, R., Melgratti, H.C., Montanari, U.: Theoretical foundations for compensations in flow composition languages. In: POPL, pp. 209–220. ACM, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Butler, M.J., Ferreira, C.: An operational semantics for StAC, a language for modelling long-running business transactions. In: De Nicola, R., Ferrari, G.L., Meredith, G. (eds.) COORDINATION 2004. LNCS, vol. 2949, pp. 87–104. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Box, D.: et al. Web services addressing. W3C member submission, August 10 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fantechi, A., Gnesi, S., Lapadula, A., Mazzanti, F., Pugliese, R., Tiezzi, F.: A model checking approach for verifying COWS specifications. In: FASE. LNCS, Springer, Heidelberg (to appear, 2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geguang, P., Xiangpeng, Z., Shuling, W., Zongyan, Q.: Semantics of BPEL4WS-like fault and compensation handling. In: Fitzgerald, J.S., Hayes, I.J., Tarlecki, A. (eds.) FM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3582, pp. 350–365. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gelernter, D.: Generative communication in Linda. ACM TOPLAS 7(1), 80–112 (1985)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guidi, C., Lanese, I., Montesi, F., Zavattaro, G.: On the interplay between fault handling and request-response service invocations. In: ACSD, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos (to appear, 2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guidi, C., Lucchi, R., Gorrieri, R., Busi, N., Zavattaro, G.: SOCK: a calculus for service oriented computing. In: Dan, A., Lamersdorf, W. (eds.) ICSOC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4294, pp. 327–338. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Laneve, C., Zavattaro, G.: Foundations of web transactions. In: Sassone, V. (ed.) FOSSACS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3441, pp. 282–298. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lapadula, A., Pugliese, R., Tiezzi, F.: A Calculus for Orchestration of Web Services. In: De Nicola, R. (ed.) ESOP 2007. LNCS, vol. 4421, pp. 33–47. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lapadula, A., Pugliese, R., Tiezzi, F.: Regulating data exchange in service oriented applications. In: Arbab, F., Sirjani, M. (eds.) FSEN 2007. LNCS, vol. 4767, pp. 223–239. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lapadula, A., Pugliese, R., Tiezzi, F.: A formal account of WS-BPEL (full version), Technical report, Univ. Firenze (2008), http://rap.dsi.unifi.it/cows
  19. 19.
    Lohmann, N.: A feature-complete Petri net semantics for WS-BPEL 2.0. In: Web Services and Formal Methods. LNCS, vol. 4937, pp. 77–91. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mazzara, M., Lucchi, R.: A pi-calculus based semantics for WS-BPEL. Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming 70(1), 96–118 (2006)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meredith, L.G., Bjorg, S.: Contracts and types. Commun. ACM 46(10), 41–47 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    OASIS WSBPEL TC. Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0 (April 2007), http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsbpel/2.0/OS/wsbpel-v2.0-OS.html
  24. 24.
    Ouyang, C., van der Aalst, W.M.P., Breutel, S., Dumas, M., ter Hofstede, A.H.M., Verbeek, H.M.W.: Formal semantics and analysis of control flow in WS-BPEL (revised version). Technical report, BPM Center Report (2005), http://www.BPMcenter.org
  25. 25.
    Prandi, D., Quaglia, P.: Stochastic COWS. In: Krämer, B.J., Lin, K.-J., Narasimhan, P. (eds.) ICSOC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4749, pp. 245–256. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    van Breugel, F., Koshkina, M.: Models and verification of BPEL. Technical report (2006), http://www.cse.yorku.ca/~franck/research/drafts/tutorial.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Lapadula
    • 1
  • Rosario Pugliese
    • 1
  • Francesco Tiezzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Sistemi e InformaticaUniversità degli Studi di Firenze 

Personalised recommendations