1. The relationship of the surface anatomy of the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages to the internal laryngeal structures are critical to surgical planning for laryngeal framework surgery and in-office procedures (i. e., percutaneous laryngeal injections).

2. The primary adductor muscles of the larynx consist of:

■ Lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)

■ Thyroarytenoid (TA)

■ Interarytenoid (IA)

3. The main abductor muscle of the larynx is the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA).

4. The cricothyroid and the TA/LCA muscles control vocal fold length, tension, and vocal frequency.

5. The microanatomy of the vocal folds is complex and consists of the following layers, from superficial to deep:

■ Epithelium

■ Superficial lamina propria

■ Intermediate lamina propria

■ Deep lamina propria

■ Vocalis muscle

6. Reinke’s space is a potential space between the superficial and intermediate layer of the lamina propria. The intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria together are referred to as the vocal ligament.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Bielamowicza S (2004) Perspectives on medialization laryngoplasty. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 37:139–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schwenzer V, Dorfl J (1997) The anatomy of the inferior laryngeal nerve. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 22:362–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zeitels SM (2000) New procedures for paralytic dysphonia: adduction arytenopexy, Gortex medialization laryngoplasty, and cricothyroid subluxation. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 33:841–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ludlow C (2004) Recent advances in laryngeal sensorimotor control for voice, speech, and swallowing. Curr Opinion in Otolaryngol 12:160–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hillel A (2001) The study of laryngeal muscle activity in normal human subjects and in patients with laryngeal dystonia using multiple fine-wire electromyography. Laryngoscope 111:1–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirano M (1977) Structure and vibratory behavior of the vocal fold. In: Sawashima M, Cooper F (eds) Dynamic aspects of speech production. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, pp 13–30Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jones-Bryant N, Woodsen GE, Kaufman K et al (1996) Human posterior cricoarytenoid muscle compartments: anatomy and mechanics. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122:1331–1336Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Armstrong WB, Netterville JL (1995) Anatomy of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 28:685Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mathew OP, Abu-Osba YK, Thach BT (1982) Influence of upper airway pressure changes in respiratory frequency. Resp Physiol 29:223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirano M, Kakita Y (1985) Cover-body theory of vocal fold vibration. Speech science. College-Hill Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bryant NJ et al (1996) Human posterior cricoarytenoid muscle compartments: anatomy and mechanics. Arch Otolaryngol 122:1331Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kempster GB, Larson CR, Distler MK (1988) Effects of electrical stimulation of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles on voice fundamental frequency. J Voice 2:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchthal F, Faaborg-Anderson K (1964) Electromyography of laryngeal and respiratory muscles: correlation with respiration and phonation. Ann Otol Rhino Laryngol 73:118Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gay T et al (1972) Electromyography of intrinsic laryngeal muscles during phonation. Ann Otol 81:401Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kotby MN, Kirchner JA, Kahane JC, Basiouny SE, el-Samaa M (1991) Histo-anatomical structure of the human laryngeal ventricle. Acta Otolaryngol 111:396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sanud, JR, Maranillo E, Leon X et al (1999) An anatomical study of anastomoses between the laryngeal nerves. Laryngoscope 109:983–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Platzer W (ed) Atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy: head and neck, (Pernkopf Anatomy, vol 1, 3rd edn.). Urban & Schwarzenberg, ViennaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Personalised recommendations