Anatomy and Physiology of the Larynx
1. The relationship of the surface anatomy of the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages to the internal laryngeal structures are critical to surgical planning for laryngeal framework surgery and in-office procedures (i. e., percutaneous laryngeal injections).
2. The primary adductor muscles of the larynx consist of:
■ Lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)
■ Thyroarytenoid (TA)
■ Interarytenoid (IA)
3. The main abductor muscle of the larynx is the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA).
4. The cricothyroid and the TA/LCA muscles control vocal fold length, tension, and vocal frequency.
5. The microanatomy of the vocal folds is complex and consists of the following layers, from superficial to deep:
■ Superficial lamina propria
■ Intermediate lamina propria
■ Deep lamina propria
■ Vocalis muscle
6. Reinke’s space is a potential space between the superficial and intermediate layer of the lamina propria. The intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria together are referred to as the vocal ligament.
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