Abstract

1. The relationship of the surface anatomy of the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages to the internal laryngeal structures are critical to surgical planning for laryngeal framework surgery and in-office procedures (i. e., percutaneous laryngeal injections).

2. The primary adductor muscles of the larynx consist of:

■ Lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)

■ Thyroarytenoid (TA)

■ Interarytenoid (IA)

3. The main abductor muscle of the larynx is the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA).

4. The cricothyroid and the TA/LCA muscles control vocal fold length, tension, and vocal frequency.

5. The microanatomy of the vocal folds is complex and consists of the following layers, from superficial to deep:

■ Epithelium

■ Superficial lamina propria

■ Intermediate lamina propria

■ Deep lamina propria

■ Vocalis muscle

6. Reinke’s space is a potential space between the superficial and intermediate layer of the lamina propria. The intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria together are referred to as the vocal ligament.

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