The Nitrogen Cycle in Terrestrial Ecosystems

  • Ann McNeill
  • Murray Unkovich
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 10)


The terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle comprises soil, plant and animal pools that contain relatively small quantities of biologically active N, in comparison to the large pools of relatively inert N in the lithosphere and atmosphere, but that nevertheless exert a substantial influence on the dynamics of the global biogeochemical N cycle. After carbon (ca. 400 g kg−1) and oxygen (ca. 450 g kg−1), N is the next most abundant element in plant dry matter, typically 10–30 g kg−1. It is a key component of plant amino and nucleic acids, and chlorophyll, and is usually acquired by plants in greater quantity from the soil than any other element. Plant N provides the basis for the dietary N (protein) of all animals, including humans.


Nitric Oxide Microbial Biomass Terrestrial Ecosystem Nitrogen Cycle Soil Biol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbasi MK, Adams WA (2000) Gaseous N emission during simultaneous nitrification-denitrification associated with mineral N fertilization to a grassland soil under field conditions. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1251–1259Google Scholar
  2. Adams MB (2003) Ecological issues related to N deposition to natural ecosystems: Research needs. Environ Int 29:89–199Google Scholar
  3. Addiscott T (1991) Farming, fertilizers and the nitrate problem. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson N, Strader R, Davidson C (2003) Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources. Environ Int 29:277–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Asman W, Sutton M, Schjoerring J (1998) Ammonia: emission, atmospheric transport and deposition. New Phytol 139:27–48Google Scholar
  6. Baaker E, Olff H, Boekhoff M, Gleichman J, Berendse F (2004) Impact of herbivores on nitrogen cycling: contrasting effects of small and large species. Oecologia 138:91–101Google Scholar
  7. Bacon PE (1994) Nitrogen fertilization and the environment. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bardgett R, Wardle DA, Yeates G (1998) Linking above-ground and below-ground interactions: how plant responses to foliar herbivory influence soil organisms. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1867–1878Google Scholar
  9. Barraclough D (1997) The direct or MIT route for nitrogen immobilization: A 15N mirror image study with leucine and glycine. Soil Biol Biochem 29:101Google Scholar
  10. Barraclough D, Gibbs P, Macdonald A (1998) A new soil nitrogen and carbon cycle. In: Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of Soil Science (CD ROM). ISSS, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  11. Barton L, McLay C, Schipper L, Smith C (1999) Annual denitrification rates in agricultural and forest soils: a review. Aust J Soil Res 37:1073–1094Google Scholar
  12. Bateman EJ, Baggs EM (2005) Contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from soils at different water-filled pore space. Biol Fertil Soil 41:379–388Google Scholar
  13. Beier C, Gundersen P (1989) Atmospheric deposition to the edge of a spruce forest in Denmark. Environ Pollut 60:257–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Binkley D, Hogberg P (1997) Does atmospheric deposition of nitrogen threaten Swedish forests? For Ecol Manage 92:119–152Google Scholar
  15. Blackmer A, Bremner J (1978) Inhibitory effect of nitrate on reduction of N2O to N2 by soil microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem 10:187–191Google Scholar
  16. Bohme F, Merbach I, Weigel A, Russow R (2003) Effect of crop type and crop growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 166:601–605Google Scholar
  17. Bolan N, Saggar S, Luo J, Bhandral R, Singh J (2004) Gaseous emissions of nitrogen from grazed pastures: processes, measurements and modelling, environmental implications, and mitigation. Adv Agron 84:37–119Google Scholar
  18. Bramley R, White R (1991) An analysis of variability in the activity of nitrifiers in a soil under pasture. I. Spatially dependent variability and optimum sampling strategy. Aust J Soil Res 29:95–108Google Scholar
  19. Bredemeier M, Blanck K, Xu YJ, Tietema A, Boxman AW, Emmett B, Moldan F, Gundersen P, Schleppi P, Wright RF (1998) Input-output budgets at the NITREX sites. For Ecol Manag 101:57–64Google Scholar
  20. Bremner JM (1997) Sources of nitrous oxide in soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:7Google Scholar
  21. Brugiere N, Suzuki A, Hirel B (1997) Ammonium assimilation. In: Morot-Gaudry J-F (ed) Nitrogen assimilation by plants; physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp 71–94Google Scholar
  22. Buresh R, Patrick W (1978) Nitrate reduction to ammonium in anaerobic soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:913–918Google Scholar
  23. Butler TJ, Likens GE, Vermeylen FM, Stunder BJB (2005) The impact of changing nitrogen oxide emissions on wet and dry nitrogen deposition in the northeastern USA. Atmos Environ 39:4851–4862Google Scholar
  24. Cabrera M, Kissel D, Vigil M (2005) Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: research opportunities. J Environ Qual 34:75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cameron KC, Haynes RJ (1986) Retention and movement of nitrogen in soils. In: Haynes RJ (ed) Mineral nitrogen in the plant-soil system. Academic Press, New York, pp 166–241Google Scholar
  26. Certini G (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaillou S, Lamaze T (1997) Ammoniacal nutrition of plants. In: Morot-Gaudry J-F (ed) Nitrogen assimilation by plants; physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp 53–69Google Scholar
  28. Chalk P, Smith C (1983) Chemodenitrification. In: Freney JR, Simpson J (eds) Gaseous loss of nitrogen from plant-soil systems. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 65–89Google Scholar
  29. Chambers BJ, Smith KA, van der Weerden TJ (1997) Ammonia emissions following the land spreading of solid manures. In: Jarvis SC, Pain B (eds) Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 275–280Google Scholar
  30. Chaneton E, Lemcoff J, Lavado R (1996) Nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in grazed and ungrazed plots in a temperate subhumid grassland in Argentina. J Appl Ecol 33:291–302Google Scholar
  31. Chantigny MH (2003) Dissolved and water-extractable organic matter in soils: a review on the influence of land use and management practices. Geoderma 113:357–380Google Scholar
  32. Chapin FS (1995) New cog in the nitrogen cycle. Nature 377:199–200Google Scholar
  33. Chen W, James E, Prescott A, Kierans M, Sprent J (2003) Nodulation of Mimosa spp. by the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia taiwanensis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:1051–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dalal RC, Wang WJ, Robertson G, Parton W (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review. Aust J Soil Res 41:165–195Google Scholar
  35. Darwinkel A (1975) Aspects of assimilation and accumulation of nitrate in some cultivated plants. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  36. Davidson EA, Kingerlee W (1997) A global inventory of nitric oxide emissions from soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 48:37–50Google Scholar
  37. Dawson L, Grayston S, Paterson E (2000) Effects of grazing on the roots and rhizosphere of grasses. In: Lemaire G (ed) Grassland ecophysiology and grazing ecology. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 61–83Google Scholar
  38. Delgado J (2002) Quantifying the loss mechanisms of nitrogen. J Soil Water Conserv 57:389–398Google Scholar
  39. Denmead OT, Freney JR, Simpson J (1976) A closed ammonia cycle within a plant canopy. Soil Biol Biochem 8:161–164Google Scholar
  40. Di HJ, Cameron KC (2002) Nitrate leaching in temperate agroecosystems: sources, factors and mitigating strategies. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 64:237–256Google Scholar
  41. Dilworth M, Glenn A (1991) Biology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  42. Engvild K (1998) The ammonium hypothesis: arginine content and the “red” decline or “top dying” of Norway Spruce. Ambio 27:158–159Google Scholar
  43. Erskine P, Bergstrom D, Schmidt S, Stewart G, Tweedie C, Shaw J (1998) Subantarctic Macquarie island — a model ecosystem for studying animal derived nitrogen sources using 15N natural abundance. Oecologia 117:187–193Google Scholar
  44. FAO (1999) Fertilizer use by crop. IFA, IFDC, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  45. Farquhar GD, Firth PM, Wetselaar R, Weir B (1980) On the gaseous exchange of ammonia between leaves and the environment: determination of the ammonia compensation point. Plant Physiol 66:710–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fenn M, Poth M, Aber J, Bormann B, Johnson D, Lemly A, McNulty S, Ryan D, Stottlemeyer R (1998) Nitrogen excess in North American ecosystems: predisposing factors, ecosystem responses, and management strategies. Ecol Appl 8:706–733Google Scholar
  47. Ferm M (1998) Atmospheric ammonia and ammonium transport in Europe and critical loads: a review. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 51:5–17Google Scholar
  48. Fillery I (2001) The fate of biologically fixed nitrogen in legume-based dryland farming systems: a review. Aust J Exp Agric 41:361–381Google Scholar
  49. Firestone MK (1982) Biological denitrification. In: Stevenson FJ (ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, pp 289–326Google Scholar
  50. Follett R, Delgado J (2002) Nitrogen fate and transport in agricultural systems. J Soil Water Conserv 57:402–408Google Scholar
  51. Follett R, Keeney DR, Cruse R (1991) Managing nitrogen for groundwater quality and farm profitability. ASSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  52. Frank D, Groffman P, Evans R, Tracy B (2000) Ungulate stimulation of nitrogen cycling and retention in Yellowstone Park grasslands. Oecologia 123:116–121Google Scholar
  53. Freney JR (1997a) Emission of nitrous oxide from soils used for agriculture. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:1–6Google Scholar
  54. Freney JR (1997b) Strategies to reduce gaseous emissions of nitrogen from irrigated agriculture. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 48:155–160Google Scholar
  55. Galloway JN, Schlesinger W, Levy II H, Michaels A, Schnoor J (1995) Nitrogen fixation: anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response. Glob Biogeochem Cycl 9:235–252Google Scholar
  56. Galloway JN, Aber J, Erisman J, Seitzinger S, Howarth R, Cowling E, Cosby B (2003) The nitrogen cascade. Bioscience 53:341–356Google Scholar
  57. Gessler A, Rienks M, Rennenberg H (2000) NH3 and NO2 fluxes between beech trees and the atmosphere — correlation with climatic and physiological parameters. New Phytol 147:539–560Google Scholar
  58. Goulding KWT, Bailey NJ, Bradbury NJ, Hargreaves P, Howe M, Murphy DV, Poulton PR, Willison TW (1998) Nitrogen deposition and its contribution to nitrogen cycling and associated soil processes. New Phytol 139:49–58Google Scholar
  59. Gregorich EG, Greer KJ, Anderson DW, Liang BC (1998) Carbon distribution and losses: erosion and deposition effects. Soil Till Res 47:291–302Google Scholar
  60. Halliday J, Pate JS (1976) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by coralloid roots of the cycad Macrozamia riedlei: physiological characteristics and ecological significance. Aust J Plant Physiol 3:349–358Google Scholar
  61. Haynes R (1986a) Nitrification. In: Haynes RJ (ed) Mineral nitrogen in the plant-soil system. Academic Press, New York, pp 127–165Google Scholar
  62. Haynes RJ (1986b) The decomposition process: mineralization, immobilization, humus formation and degradation. In: Haynes RJ (ed) Mineral nitrogen in the plant-soil system. Academic Press, New York, pp 52–126Google Scholar
  63. Haynes RJ (1986c) Uptake and assimilation of nitrogen by plants. In: Haynes RJ (ed) Mineral nitrogen in the plant-soil system. Academic Press, New York, pp 303–378Google Scholar
  64. Haynes RJ, Williams P (1993) Nutrient cycling and soil fertility in the grazed pasture ecosystem. Adv Agron 49:119–199Google Scholar
  65. Haynes RJ, Williams PH (1999) The influence of stock camping behaviour on the soil microbial and biochemical properties of grazed pastoral soils. Biol Fertil Soil 28:253–258Google Scholar
  66. IFA (2005) Production and international trade. August 2005Google Scholar
  67. James EK (2000) Nitrogen fixation in endophytic and associative symbiosis. Field Crops Res 65:197–209Google Scholar
  68. Jansson S, Persson J (1982) Mineralization and immobilization of soil nitrogen. In: Stevenson FJ (ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, pp 229–252Google Scholar
  69. Jarvis SC (2000) Soil-plant-animal interactions on nitrogen and phosphorus cycling and recycling in grazed pastures. In: Lemaire G, Hodgson J, de Moraes A, Nabinger C, de F Carvalho P (eds) Grassland ecophysiology and grazing ecology. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 317–337Google Scholar
  70. Jarvis SC, Stockdale E, Shepherd M, Powlson D (1996) Nitrogen mineralization in temperate agricultural soils: processes and measurement. Adv Agron 57:188–235Google Scholar
  71. Jenkinson DS (1990) The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 329:361–368Google Scholar
  72. Jenkinson DS (2001) The impact of humans on the nitrogen cycle, with focus on temperate arable agriculture. Plant Soil 228:3–15Google Scholar
  73. Kennedy IR (1996) Acid soil and acid rain. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Kirchner M, Jakobi G, Feicht E, Bernhardt M, Fischer A (2005) Elevated NH3 and NO2 air concentrations and nitrogen deposition rates in the vicinity of a highway in Southern Bavaria. Atmos Environ 39:4531–4542Google Scholar
  75. Knowles R (1982) Denitrification. Microbiol Rev 46:43–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Krupa SV (2003) Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on terrestrial vegetation: a review. Environ Pollut 124:179–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kumar K, Goh K (2000) Crop residues and management practices: effects on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yield and nitrogen recovery. Adv Agron 68:198–319Google Scholar
  78. Leigh J (2004) The world’s greatest fix: a history of nitrogen and agriculture. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  79. Lipson D, Monson R (1998) Plant-microbe competition for soil amino acids in the alpine tundra: effects of freeze-thaw and dry-rewet events. Oecologia 113:406–414Google Scholar
  80. Lipson D, Nasholm T (2001) The unexpected versatility of plants: organic nitrogen use and availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Oecologia 128:305–316Google Scholar
  81. Littmann T (1997) Atmospheric input of dust and nitrogen into the Nizzana sand dune ecosystem, north-western Negev, Israel. J Arid Environ 36:433–457Google Scholar
  82. Martens D (2000) Nitrogen cycling under different soil management systems. Adv Agron 70:143–192Google Scholar
  83. Matson P (1997) NOx emission from soils and its consequences for the atmosphere and biosphere: critical gaps and research directions for the future. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 48:1–6Google Scholar
  84. McDowell L, McGregor K (1984) Plant nutrient losses in runoff from conservation tillage corn. Soil Till Res 4:79–91Google Scholar
  85. McNeill A, Zhu C, Fillery I (1997) Use of in situ 15N-labelling to estimate the total below-ground nitrogen of pasture legumes in intact soil-plant systems. Aust J Agric Res 48:295–304Google Scholar
  86. McNeill A, Eriksen J, Bergstrom L, Smith K, Marstorp H, Kirchmann H, Nilsson I (2005) Nitrogen and sulphur management: challenges for organic sources in temperate agricultural systems. Soil Use Manage 21:82–93Google Scholar
  87. Millard P (1988) The accumulation and storage of nitrogen by herbaceous plants. Plant Cell Environ 11:1–8Google Scholar
  88. Misselbrook T, Van der Weerden T, Pain B, Jarvis SC, Chambers B, Smith K, Phillips V, Demmers T (2000) Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture. Atmos Environ 34:871–880Google Scholar
  89. Monaghan R, Barraclough D (1993) Nitrous oxide and dinitrogen emissions from urine-affected soil under controlled conditions. Plant Soil 151:127–138Google Scholar
  90. Morot-Gaudry J-F (2001) Nitrogen assimilation by plants; physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects. Science Publishers, Enfield, NHGoogle Scholar
  91. Mosier A, Kroeze C, Nevison C, Oenema O, Seitzinger S, van Cleemput O (1998) Closing the global N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 52:225–248Google Scholar
  92. Mosier AR (2001) Exchange of gaseous nitrogen compounds between agricultural systems and the atmosphere. Plant Soil 228:17–27Google Scholar
  93. Murphy DV, Macdonald AJ, Stockdale EA, Goulding KWT, Fortune S, Gaunt JL, Poulton PR, Wakefield JA, Webster CP, Wilmer WS (2000) Soluble organic nitrogen in agricultural soils. Biol Fertil Soil 30:374–387Google Scholar
  94. Nasholm T, Huss-Danell K, Hogberg P (2000) Uptake of organic nitrogen in the field by four agriculturally important plant species. Ecology 81:1155–1161Google Scholar
  95. Neff JC, Holland EA, Dentener FJ, McDowell WH, Russell KM (2002) The origin, composition and rates of organic nitrogen deposition: a missing piece of the nitrogen cycle? Biogeochemistry 57–58:99–136Google Scholar
  96. Nelson DW (1982) Gaseous loss of nitrogen other than through denitrification. In: Stevenson FJ (ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, pp 327–363Google Scholar
  97. Nemitz E, Sutton M, Gut A, San Jose R, Husted S, Schjoerring J (2000) Sources and sinks of ammonia within an oilseed rape canopy. Agric For Meteorol 105:385–404Google Scholar
  98. Oenema O, Bannink A, Sommer S, Velthof GL (2001) Gaseous nitrogen emissions from livestock faming systems. In: Follett R, Hatfield J (eds) Nitrogen in the environment: sources, problems and management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 255–289Google Scholar
  99. Olivier JGJ, Bouwman AF, Van der Hoek KW, Berdowski JJM (1998) Global air emission inventories for anthropogenic sources of NOx, NH3 and N2O in 1990. Environ Pollut 102:135–148Google Scholar
  100. Pate JS, Layzell DB (1990) Energetics and biological costs of nitrogen assimilation. In: Miffli B, Lea P (eds) The biochemistry of plants. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  101. Patureau D, Zumstein E, Delgenes JP, Moletta R (2000) Aerobic denitrifiers isolated from diverse natural and managed ecosystems. Microb Ecol 39:145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Paul E, Clark F (1989) Soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Payne W (1981) Denitrification. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Pedersen H, Dunkin K, Firestone M (1999) The relative importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in a conifer forest soil as measured by 15N tracer and pool dilution techniques. Biogeochemistry 44:135–150Google Scholar
  105. Peoples MB, Herridge DF, Ladha JK (1995) Biological nitrogen fixation: an efficient source of nitrogen for sustainable agricultural production? Plant Soil 174:2–28Google Scholar
  106. Perakis S, Hedin L (2002) Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Nature 415:416–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pihlatie M, Ambus P, Rinne J, Pilegaard K, Vesala T (2005) Plant mediated nitrous oxide emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica) leaves. New Phytol 168:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pitcairn C, Fowler D, Grace J (1995) Deposition of fixed atmospheric nitrogen and foliar nitrogen content of bryophytes and Calluna vulgaris (Hull). Environ Pollut 88:193–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Poth M, Focht D (1985) 15N kinetic analysis of N2O production by Nitrosomonas europae — an examination of nitrifier denitrification. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:1134–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Rai AN, Soderback E, Bergman B (2000) Tansley Review No. 116. Cyanobacterium-plant symbioses. New Phytol 147:449–481Google Scholar
  111. Read DJ, Perez-Moreno J (2003) Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems — a journey towards relevance? New Phytol 157:475–492Google Scholar
  112. Recous S, Machet J, Mary B (1988) The fate of 15N urea and ammonium nitrate applied to a winter wheat crop. II. Plant uptake and N efficiency. Plant Soil 112:215–224Google Scholar
  113. Recous S, Mary B, Faurie G (1990) Microbial immobilization of ammonium and nitrate in cultivated soils. Soil Biol Biochem 22:913–922Google Scholar
  114. Roger P (1997) Rice field cyanobacteria: ecology, contribution to soil fertility and practical utilisation. In: Morot-Gaudry J-F (ed) Nitrogen assimilation by plants; physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp 199–226Google Scholar
  115. Schjoerring JK, Mattsson M (2001) Quantification of ammonia exchange between agricultural cropland and the atmosphere: Measurements over two complete growth cycles of oilseed rape, wheat, barley and pea. Plant Soil 228:105Google Scholar
  116. Schjoerring JK, Husted S, Mack G, Mattsson M (2002) The regulation of ammonium translocation in plants. J Exp Bot 53:883–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Schlesinger W, Hartley A (1992) A global budget for atmospheric NH3. Biogeochemistry 15:191–211Google Scholar
  118. Shoun H, Kim D, Uchiyama H, Sugiyama J (1992) Denitrification by fungi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 73:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Siemens J, Kaupenjohann M (2002) Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen to N leaching from four German agricultural soils. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 165:657–681Google Scholar
  120. Silgram M, Shepherd MA (1999) The effects of cultivation on soil nitrogen mineralization. Adv Agron 65:267–311Google Scholar
  121. Sinclair TR, Bai Q (1997) Analysis of high wheat yields in northwest China. Agric Syst 53:373–385Google Scholar
  122. Skiba U, Fowler D, Smith KA (1997) Nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils in temperate and tropical climates: sources, controls and mitigation options. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 48:139–153Google Scholar
  123. Smil V (1997) Cycles of life: civilization and the biosphere. Scientific American Library Series, No 63, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Smith K (1980) A model of the extent of anaerobic zones in aggregated soils, and its potential application to estimates of denitrification. J Soil Sci 31:263–277Google Scholar
  125. Sommer S, Hutchings N (1997) Components of ammonia volatilization from cattle and sheep production. In: Jarvis SC, Pain B (eds) Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 79–93Google Scholar
  126. Sommer S, Schjoerring J, Denmead O (2004) Ammonia emissions from mineral fertilizers and fertilized crops. Adv Agron 82:557–621Google Scholar
  127. Sprent JI (2001) Nodulation in legumes. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, LondonGoogle Scholar
  128. Sprent J, Sprent P (1990) Nitrogen fixing organisms: pure and applied aspects. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Stark J, Hart S (1997) High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forests. Nature 385:61–64Google Scholar
  130. Stevens RJ, Laughlin RJ (1998) Measurement of nitrous oxide and di-nitrogen emissions from agricultural soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 52:131–139Google Scholar
  131. Terman G (1979) Volatilization losses of nitrogen as ammonia from surface-applied fertilizers, organic amendments and crop residues. Adv Agron 31:189–223Google Scholar
  132. Tortoso A, Hutchinson G (1990) Contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifiers to soil NO and N2O emissions. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:1799–1805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Turnbull M, Schmidt S, Erskine P, Richards S, Stewart G (1996) Root adaptation and nitrogen source aquisition in natural ecosystems. Tree Physiol 16:941–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Unkovich M, Pate J (2000) An appraisal of recent field measurements of symbiotic N2 fixation by annual legumes. Field Crops Res 211:211–228Google Scholar
  135. Van Breemen N, van Dijk HFG (1988) Ecosystem effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in The Netherlands. Environ Pollut 54:249–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Verchot LV, Holmes Z, Mulon L, Groffman PM, Lovett GM (2001) Gross vs net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as indicators of functional differences between forest types. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1889–1901Google Scholar
  137. Vitousek P, Aber J, Howarth R, Likens G, Matson P, Schindler D, Schlesinger W, Tilman D (1997) Human alterations of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750Google Scholar
  138. Vitousek PM, Cassman K, Cleveland C, Crews T, Field CB, Grimm NB, Howarth RW, Marino R, Martinelli L, Rastetter EB, Sprent JI (2002) Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry 57–58:1–45Google Scholar
  139. Wardle D, Lavelle P (1997) Linkages between soil biota, plant litter quality and decomposition. In: Cadisch G, Giller K (eds) Driven by nature: plant litter quality and decomposition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 107–124Google Scholar
  140. Wetselaar R, Farquhar GD (1980) Nitrogen losses from tops of plants. Adv Agron 33:263–302Google Scholar
  141. Whitehead D (1995) Grassland nitrogen. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  142. Williams PH, Haynes RJ (1995) Effect of sheep, deer and cattle dung on herbage production and soil nutrient content. Grass For Sci 50:263–271Google Scholar
  143. Wood P (1990) Autotrophic and heterotrophic mechanisms for ammonia oxidation. Soil Use Manage 6:78–79Google Scholar
  144. Wrage N, Velthof GL, van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (2001) Role of nitrifier denitrification in the production of nitrous oxide. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1723–1732Google Scholar
  145. Xing GX, Zhu ZL (2002) Regional nitrogen budgets for China and its major watersheds. Biogeochemistry 57–58:405–427Google Scholar
  146. Yin SX, Chen D, Chen LM, Edis R (2002) Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and responsible microorganisms in two Chinese and Australian paddy soils. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1131–1137Google Scholar
  147. Zuberer D (1999) Biological nitrogen fixation: introduction and non-symbiotic. In: Sylvia D, Fuhrmann J, Hatrel P, Zuberer D (eds) Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp 295–321Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann McNeill
    • 1
  • Murray Unkovich
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesThe University of AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations