Representing Temporal Information in UML

  • Jordi Cabot
  • Antoni Olivé
  • Ernest Teniente
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2863)


The UML is a non-temporal conceptual modeling language. Conceptual schemas in the UML assume that the information base contains the current instances of entity and relationship types. For many information systems, the above assumption is acceptable. However, there are some information systems for which that assumption is a severe limitation. This happens when the functions of the information system require the knowledge of past states of the information base. In this paper we extend the UML to define a set of temporal features of entity and relationship types, and to provide notational devices to refer to any past state of the information base. Using this extension, a designer may use the UML/OCL as if it were a temporal conceptual modeling language. We also present a method for the transformation of a conceptual schema in this extended language into a conventional one. The method can be automated, and we describe an implementation. The result of our transformation method is a conceptual schema that can be processed by ordinary CASE tools.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ArgoUML, (visited March 2003)
  2. 2.
    Bergamaschi, S., Sartori, C.: Chrono: a conceptual design framework for temporal entities. In: Ling, T.-W., Ram, S., Li Lee, M. (eds.) ER 1998. LNCS, vol. 1507, pp. 35–50. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Embley, D.W., Kurtz, B.D., Woodfield, S.N.: Object-Oriented Systems Analysis. A Model-Driven Approach. Yourdon Press, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carlson, A., Estepp, S., Fowler, M.: Temporal Pattern. In: Pattern Languages of Program Design 4, pp. 241–262. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Conrad, S., Turowski, K.: Temporal OCL: Meeting Specification Demands for Business Components. In: Siau, K., Halpin, T. (eds.) Unified Modelling Language: System Analysis, Design and Development Issues, pp. 151–166. Idea Pub. Group (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gregersen, H., Jensen, C.S.: Temporal Entity-Relationship Models: a Survey. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 11(3), 464–497 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jeckle, M.: UML Tools (Case & Drawing), (visited March 2003)
  8. 8.
    Jensen, C.S., Snodgrass, R.: Semantics of Time-Varying Information. Information Systems 21(4), 311–352 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kraft, P., Sørensen, J.O.: Translation of a high-level temporal model into lower level models. In: Kunii, H.S., Jajodia, S., Sølvberg, A. (eds.) ER 2001. LNCS, vol. 2224, pp. 383–396. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISO/TC97/SC5/WG3. van Griethuysen, J.J (edi.): Concepts and Terminology for the Conceptual Schema and Information Base (1982)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Objecteering/UML, (visited March 2003)
  12. 12.
    Olivé, A.: Relationship Reification: A Temporal View. In: Jarke, M., Oberweis, A. (eds.) CAiSE 1999. LNCS, vol. 1626, pp. 396–410. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    OMG. Unified Modeling Language Specification, Version 1.4 (September 2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    OMG. OMG XML Metadata Interchange Specification, v. 1.2 (January 2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Price, R., Tryfona, N., Jensen, C.S.: Extended SpatioTemporal UML: Motivations, Requirements and Constructs. Journal of Database Management 11(4), 14–27Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Svinterikou, M., Theodoulidis, B.: TUML: A Method for Modelling Temporal Information Systems. In: Jarke, M., Oberweis, A. (eds.) CAiSE 1999. LNCS, vol. 1626, pp. 456–461. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thalheim, B.: Entity-Relationship modeling. Foundations of database technology. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)MATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W3C. XSL Transformations, Version 1.0 (November 1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xalan, (visited March 2003)
  20. 20.
    Ziemann, P., Gogolla, M.: OCL Extended with Temporal Logic. In: Perspective of System Informatics. LNCS, vol. 2244, Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi Cabot
    • 1
  • Antoni Olivé
    • 1
  • Ernest Teniente
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. Llenguatges i Sistemes InformàticsUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaBarcelona

Personalised recommendations