Chapter 2: Ontology for Spatio-temporal Databases

  • Andrew U. Frank
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2520)


Ontology and the related term “semantics” have recently found increased attention in database discussions. Early discussions of ontology issues important for databases [126,78] were lost in a sea of papers on technical, mostly performance issues, despite the fact that textbooks as early as [134] discussed briefly the relationship between information system and real world.


Geographical Information System Geographic Information System Physical Object Physical Reality Social Reality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Al-Taha, K.: Temporal Reasoning in Cadastral Systems. Ph.D., University of Maine (1992)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen, J.: Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Communications of the ACM 26(11), 832–843 (1983)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ANSI/X3/SPARC. Study group on database management systems, interim report 75-02-08. SIGMOD, 7(2) (1975)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asimov, I.: Earth is Room Enough. Doubleday, New York (1957)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asperti, A., Longo, G.: Categories, Types and Structures - An Introduction to Category Theory for the Working Computer Scientist, 1st edn, Foundations of Computing. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baird, D.G., Gertner, R.H., Pickr, R.C.: Game Theory and the Law. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bancilhon, F., Delobel, C., Kanellakis, P.: Building an Object-Oriented Database System - The Story of O2. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo (1992)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barr, A., Feigenbaum, E.A.: The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. W. Kaufman, HeirisTech Press, Los Altos, Stanford (1981)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barr, M., Wells, C.: Category Theory for Computing Science. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berners-Lee, T., Fischetti, M.: Weaving the Web: The original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web, by its inventor. Harper, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O.: The Semantic Web. Scientific American (May 2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berger, P.L., Luckmann, T.: The Social Construction of Reality. Anchor Books edn. Doubleday, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bernasconi, D.: Rahmenkonzept zur Gestaltung eines Datenmanagementsystems Siedlungsentwässerung. Doctoral thesis, ETH Zürich (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Birkhoff, G.: Universal algebra. First Canadian Math. Congress, pp. 310–326. Toronto University Press (1945)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Birkhoff, G., Lipson, J.D.: Heterogeneous algebras. Journal of Combinatorial Theory 8, 115–133 (1970)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bittner, S.: Die Modellierung eines Grundbuchsystems im Situationskalkül. Diploma thesis, Universität Leipzig (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bittner, T.: Rough Location. PhD, Technical University (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bittner, T.: Approximate temporal reasoning. In: AAAI Workshop on Spatial and Temporal Granularity, Time 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bittner, T., Stell, J.: A boundary-sensitive approach to qualitative location. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence 24, 93–114 (1998)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bittner, T., Stell, J.: Rough sets in approximate spatial reasoning. In: Ziarko, W.P., Yao, Y. (eds.) RSCTC 2000. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2005, p. 445. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Black, H.C.: Black’s Law Dictionary, pocket edn. West Publishing, St. Paul (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blumenthal, L., Menger, K.: Studies in Geometry. W.H. Freeman, New York (1970)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Booch, G., Rumbaugh, J., Jacobson, I.: Unified Modeling Language Semantics and Notation Guide 1.0. Rational Software Corporation, San Jose, CA (1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Borgo, S., Guarino, N., Masolo, C.: A pointless theory of space based on strong connection and congruence. In: Carlucci, L., Doyle, J. (eds.) Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR 1996). Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Borgo, S., Guarino, N., Masolo, C.: Stratified ontologies: The case of physical objects. In: ECAI 1996, Workshop on Ontological Engineering, Budapest (August 1996)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buehler, K., McKee, L. (eds.): OpenGIS Guide: An Introduction to Interoperable Geoprocessing, Part 1 of the Open Geodata Interoperability Specification (OGIS). The Open GIS Consortium, Inc. (OGC), 35 Main Street, Suite 5, Wayland, MA 01778 (1996), Available from
  27. 27.
    Burrough, P.A., Frank, A.U.: Concepts and paradigms in spatial information: Are current geographic information systems truly generic? International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 9(2), 101–116 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burrough, P.A., Frank, A.U. (eds.): Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. GISDATA Series, vol. 2. Taylor & Francis, London (1996)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Buyong, T., Kuhn, W.: Local adjustment for measurement-based cadastral systems. Journal of Surveying Engineering and Land Information Systems 52(1), 25–33 (1992)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buyong, T., Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U.: A conceptual model of measurement-based multipurpose cadastral systems. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) 3(2), 35–49 (1991)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Campari, I.: Uncertain boundaries in urban space. In: Burrough, P.A., Frank, A.U. (eds.) Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. GISDATA, vol. 2, pp. 57–69. Taylor & Francis, London (1996)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Campari, I., Frank, A.U.: Cultural aspects and cultural differences in geographic information systems. In: Nyerges, T.L., Mark, D.M., Laurini, R., Egenhofer, M. (eds.) Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for Geographic Information Systems - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Palma de Mallorca. NATO ASI Series D, vol. 83, pp. 249–266. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1995)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cardelli, L.: Type systems. In: Tucker, A.B. (ed.) The Computer Science and Engineering Handook, pp. 2208–2236. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1997)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cardelli, L., Wegner, P.: On understanding types, data abstraction, and polymorphism. ACM Computing Surveys 17(4), 471–522 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Casati, R., Smith, B., Varzi, A.C.: Ontological tools for geographic representation. In: Guarino, N. (ed.) Formal Ontology in Information Systems, pp. 77–85. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1998)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Casati, R., Varzi, A.C.: Holes and Other Superficialities. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Casati, R., Varzi, A.C.: Parts and Places. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    CEN. Geographic information - Data description: Metadata. Draft standard, CEN/TC 287/WG2 (1995)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ceri, S., Fraternali, P., Paraboschi, S.: XML: Current development and future challenges for the database community. In: Zaniolo, C., Grust, T., Scholl, M.H., Lockemann, P.C. (eds.) EDBT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1777, pp. 3–17. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chevallier, J.: Land information systems - A global and system theoretic approach. In: FIG International Federation of Surveyors, vol. 3, page paper 301.2, Montreux, Switzerland (1981)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chrisman, N.: Exploring Geographic Information Systems. John Wiley, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Clifford, J., Croker, A.: Objects in time. Database Engineering 7(4), 189–196 (1988)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    CODASYL. Report of the data base task group. Technical report (April 1971) Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cohn, A., Cui, Z., Randell, D.: Exploiting temporal continuity in qualitative spatial calculi. specialist meeting, NCGIA, pp. 8–11 (May 1993)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cohn, A., Gotts, N.: The ’egg-yolk’ representation of regions with indeterminate boundaries. In: Burrough, P., Frank, A.U. (eds.) Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries. GISDATA, vol. II. Taylor & Francis, London (1996)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Corbett, J.: Topological principles in cartography. Technical Paper 48, Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce (1979)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Corp, R.S.: UML notation guide (1997)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Couclelis, H.: People manipulate objects (but cultivate fields): Beyond the rastervector debate in GIS. In: Frank, A.U., Formentini, U., Campari, I. (eds.) GIS 1992. LNCS, vol. 639, pp. 65–77. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Couclelis, H., Gale, N.: Space and spaces. Geografiske Annaler 68B, 1–12 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cover, R.: The XML cover pages (1998),
  51. 51.
    Cressie, N.A.: Statistics for Spatial Data. Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. John Wiley, New York (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Curry, H.B., Feys, R.: Combinatory Logic. North Holland, Amsterdam (1956)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    CYC. The CYC corporation web page (2000),
  54. 54.
    Dale, P.F., McLaughlin, J.D.: Land Information Management - An introduction with special reference to cadastral problems in third World countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1988)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Davis, E.: Representation of Commonsense Knowledge. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., San Mateo (1990)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davis, M.D.: Game Theory. revised edn. Dover Publications, Minneola (1983)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Devogele, T., Parent, C., Spaccapietra, S.: On spatial database integration. IJGIS 12(4), 335–352 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eastman, C.: Database Facilities for Engineering Design, vol. 69 (1981)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Egenhofer, M.: What’s special about spatial - Database requirements for vehicle navigation in geographic space. SIGMOD Record 22(2), 398–402 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Egenhofer, M., Al-Taha, K.: Reasoning about gradual changes of topological relationships. In: Frank, A.U., Formentini, U., Campari, I. (eds.) GIS 1992. LNCS, vol. 639, pp. 196–219. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Egenhofer, M., Frank, A.U.: Connection between local and regional: Additional “intelligence” needed. In: FIG XVIII International Congress of Surveyors, Toronto, Canada (June 1-11, 1986)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Egenhofer, M.J., Frank, A.U., Jackson, J.: A topological data model for spatial databases. In: Buchmann, A., Smith, T.R., Wang, Y.-F., Günther, O. (eds.) SSD 1989. LNCS, vol. 409, pp. 271–286. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Egenhofer, M.J.: A formal definition of binary topological relationships. In: Litwin, W., Schek, H.-J. (eds.) FODO 1989. LNCS, vol. 367, pp. 457–472. Springer, Heidelberg (1989)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Egenhofer, M.J.: Spatial Query Languages. Ph.D., University of Maine (1989)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Egenhofer, M.J., Franzosa, R.D.: Point-set topological spatial relations. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5(2), 161–174 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Egenhofer, M.J., Mark, D.M.: Naive geography. In: Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ehrich, H.-D.: Key extensions of abstract data types, final algebras, and database semantics. In: Poigné, A., Pitt, D.H., Rydeheard, D.E., Abramsky, S. (eds.) Category Theory and Computer Programming. LNCS, vol. 240. Springer, Heidelberg (1986)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ehrich, H.-D., Gogolla, M., Lipeck, U.: Algebraische Spezifikation abstrakter Datentypen. Leitfäden und Monographien der Informatik. B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart (1989)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Eschenbach, C.: Zählangaben - Maßangaben. Studien zur Kognitionswissenschaft. Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden (1995)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Eschenbach, C.: On representation and descriptions of spatial socio-economic units. In: Frank, A.U., Raper, J., Cheylan, J.-P. (eds.) Life and Motion of Socio-Economic Units. ESF Series. Taylor & Francis, London (2000)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Eschenbach, C., Kulik, L.: An axiomatic approach to the spatial relations underlying left-right and in front of-behind. In: KI 1997 (1997)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    ESPRIT. The esprit project web page (2000),
  73. 73.
    Fauconnier, G.: Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fellbaum, C. (ed.): WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. Language, Speech, and Communication. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1998)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ferber, J. (ed.): Multi-Agent Systems - An Introduction to Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1998)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fonseca, F.T., Egenhofer, M.J.: Ontology-driven geographic information systems. Geographic Information Systems 8, 385–399 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Franck, G.: Time, actuality, novelty and history. In: Frank, A.U. (ed.) Life and Motion of Socio-Economic Units. Taylor & Francis, London (to appear)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Frank, A.U.: Datenstrukturen für Landinformationssysteme - Semantische, Topologische und Räumliche Beziehungen in Daten der Geo-Wissenschaften. Dissertation, ETH Zürich, Institut für Geodäsie und Photogrammetrie (1983)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Frank, A.U.: Qualitative temporal reasoning in gis-ordered time scales. In: Waugh, T.C., Healey, R.G. (eds.) Sixth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH 1994, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 5-9, vol. 1, pp. 410–430 (1994) IGU Commission on GISGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Frank, A.U.: An object-oriented, formal approach to the design of cadastral systems. In: Kraak, M.J., Molenaar, M. (eds.) 7th Int. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH 1996. IGU, vol. 1, p. 5A.19-5A.35. Delft, The Netherlands (1996)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Frank, A.U.: Spatial ontology: A geographical information point of view. In: Stock, O. (ed.) Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, pp. 135–153. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Frank, A.U.: GIS for politics. In: Proceedings, C.-R. (ed.) GIS Planet 1998, Lisbon, Portugal, September 9-11. IMERSIV (1998)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Frank, A.U.: Metamodels for data quality description. In: Jeansoulin, R., Goodchild, M. (eds.) Data quality in Geographic Information - From Error to Uncertainty, pp. 15–29. Hermes, Paris (1998)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Frank, A.U.: One step up the abstraction ladder: Combining algebras - from functional pieces to a whole. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 95–107. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Frank, A.U.: Communication with maps: A formalized model. In: Habel, C., Brauer, W., Freksa, C., Wender, K.F. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 2000. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1849, pp. 80–99. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Frank, A.U.: Socio-economic units: Their life and motion. In: Frank, A.U., Raper, J., Cheylan, J.P. (eds.) Life and Motion of Socio-Economic Units. ESF Series. Taylor and Francis, London (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Frank, A.U., Kuhn, W.: Cell graphs: A provable correct method for the storage of geometry. In: Marble, D. (ed.) Second International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Seattle, Wash., pp. 411–436 (1986)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Frank, A.U., Kuhn, W.: A specification language for interoperable GIS. In: Goodchild, M.F., Egenhofer, M., Fegeas, R., Kottman, C. (eds.) Interoperating Geographic Information Systems. Kluwer, Norwell (1998)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Frank, A.U., Medak, D.: Formal models of a spatiotemporal database. In: Richta, K. (ed.) DATASEM 1999 - 19th Annual Conference on the Current Trends in Databases and Information Systems, Brno, Czech Republic, October 24-26, pp. 117–130 (1999); Dept. of Computer Science, Czech Technical UniversityGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Frank, A.U., Palmer, B., Robinson, V.: Formal methods for accurate definition of some fundamental terms in physical geography. In: Marble, D. (ed.) Second International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Seattle, Wash., pp. 583–599 (1986)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Frank, A.U., Raper, J., Cheylan, J.-P. (eds.): Life and Motion of Socio- Economic Units. ESF Series. Taylor & Francis, London (2000)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Frank, A.U., Raubal, M.: Formal specifications of image schemata - a step to interoperability in geographic information systems. Spatial Cognition and Computation 1(1), 67–101 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Frank, A.U., Volta, G.S., McGranaghan, M.: Formalization of families of categorical coverages. IJGIS 11(3), 215–231 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Franklin, W.: Cartographic errors symptomatic of underlying algebra problems. In: First International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zürich, Switzerland, pp. 190–208 (1984)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fraser, J.T. (ed.): The Voices of Time, 2nd edn. The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst (1981)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Freksa, C.: Qualitative spatial reasoning. In: Mark, D.M., Frank, A.U. (eds.) Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. NATO ASI Series D: Behavioural and Social Sciences, pp. 361–372. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht (1991)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Galton, A.: Towards a qualitative theory of movement. In: Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 377–396. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Galton, A.: Continuous change in spatial regions. In: Frank, A.U. (ed.) COSIT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1329, pp. 1–14. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Giblin, R.: Graphs, Surfaces and Homology. Mathematics Series. Chapman and Hall, London (1977)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gibson, J.: The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1979)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Goguen, J.: An introduction to algebraic semiotics, with applications to user interface design. In: Nehaniv, C.L. (ed.) CMAA 1998. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1562, pp. 242–291. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Goodchild, M.: Geographical data modeling. Computers and Geosciences 18(4), 401–408 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goodchild, M.F., Egenhofer, M., Fegeas, R., Kottmann, C. (eds.): Interoperating Geographic Information Systems, Proceedings of Interop 1997, Santa Barbara, CA. Kluwer, Norwell (1998)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A.N.: Words, Thoughts, and Theories. Learning, Development, and Conceptual Change. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Greene, D., Yao, F.: Finite-resolution computational geometry. In: 27th IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 143–152. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1986)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Guarino, N.: Semantic matching: formal ontological distinctions for information organization, extraction, and integration. In: Pazienza, M.T. (ed.) Information Extraction: An Interdisciplinary Approach to an Emerging Information Technology, pp. 139–170. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Guarino, N.: Formal ontology, conceptual analysis and knowledge representation. In: Guarino, N., Poli, R. (eds.) International Journal of Human and Computer Studies. Special Issue on Formal Ontology, Conceptual Analysis and Knowledge Representation, vol. 43(5/6) (1995)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Guarino, N.: Formal ontology and information systems. In: Guarino, N. (ed.) Formal ontology in information systems, Proceedings of FOIS 1998, Trento, Italy, June 6-8, pp. 3–15. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1998)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Guarino, N., Welty, C.: A formal ontology of properties. In: Dieng, R., Corby, O. (eds.) Proceedings of EKW-2000, 12th Int. Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, October 2-6. LNCS (LNAI). Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Guarino, N., Welty, C.: Identity, unity and individuation: towards a formal toolkit for ontological analysis. In: Horn, W. (ed.) ECAI-2000, The European Conference on Artificial Intelligence. IOS, Amsterdam (August 2000)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Guenther, O., Schulz, K.-P., Seggelke, J. (eds.): Umweltanwendungen geographischer Informationssystem. Wichmann, Karlsruhe (1992)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gueting, R.: Second-order signature: a tool for specifying data models, query processing, and optimization. In: ACM Sigmod Conference, Washington, DC, pp. 277–286 (1993)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hacking, I.: The Social Construction of What? Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hägerstrand, T.: The propagation of innovation waves. Lund Studies in Geography, vol. B(4) (1952)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hayes, P.J.: Naive physics I: Ontology for liquids. In: Hobbs, J.R., Moore, R.C. (eds.) Formal Theories of the Commonsense World. Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence, pp. 71–107. Ablex Publishing, Norwood (1985)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hayes, P.J.: The second naive physics manifesto. In: Hobbs, J.R., Moore, R.C. (eds.) Formal Theories of the Commonsense World, pp. 1–36. Ablex Publishing Corp., Norwood (1985)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Herring, J., Egenhofer, M.J., Frank, A.U.: Using category theory to model GIS applications. In: Brassel, K. (ed.) 4th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zürich, Switzerland. IGU, Commission on Geographic Information Systems, vol. 2, pp. 820–829 (1990)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hodges, W.: A Shorter Model Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hölbling, W., Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U.: Finite-resolution simplicial complexes. GeoInformatica 2(3), 281–298 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hornsby, K., Egenhofer, M.J.: Qualitative representation of change. In: Frank, A.U. (ed.) COSIT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1329, pp. 15–33. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    ICPR. Discussion at the international conference on the development and maintenance of property rights, vienna, January 12-15 (2000)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    ISO. The international standardization organization web page (2000)
  123. 123.
    Jackendoff, R.: Semantics and Cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge (1983)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Johnson, M.: The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1987)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jones, M.: Qualified Types: Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1994)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kent, W.: Data and Reality - Basic Assumptions in Data Processing Reconsidered. North-Holland, Amsterdam (1978)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kripke, S.: Semantical analysis of modal logic. Zeitschrift fuer Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 9, 67–96 (1963)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kuan, S.: Geodetic Network Analysis and Optimal Design. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea (1996)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kuipers, B.: A hierarchy of qualitative representations for space. In: Freksa, C., Habel, C., Wender, K.F. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 1998. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1404, pp. 337–350. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lakoff, G.: Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1987)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lakoff, G.: Cognitive semantics. In: Eco, U., Santambrogio, M., Violi, P. (eds.) Meaning and Mental Representations, pp. 119–154. Indiana University Press, Bloomington (1988)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lakoff, G., Johnson, M.: Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1980)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lenat, D.G., Guha, R.V., Pittman, K., Pratt, D., Shepherd, M.: CYC: Toward programs with common sense. Comm. ACM 33(8), 30–49 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lockemann, P., Mayr, H.: Rechnergestützte Informationssysteme. Springer, Berlin (1978)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Loeckx, J., Ehrich, H.-D., Wolf, M.: Specification of Abstract Data Types. John Wiley and B.G. Teubner, Chichester (1996)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    MacLane, S., Birkhoff, G.: Algebra. Macmillan, New York (1967)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    McCarthy, J., Hayes, P.J.: Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence. In: Meltzer, B., Michie, D. (eds.) Machine Intelligence 4, pp. 463–502. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (1969)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    McCoy, N., Berger, T.: Algebra: Groups, Rings and other Topics. Allyn and Bacon, London (1977)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Medak, D.: Lifestyles - A Paradigm for the Description of Spatiotemporal Databases. Ph.D. thesis, Technical University Vienna (1999)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Medak, D.: Lifestyles. In: Frank, A.U., Raper, J., Cheylan, J.-P. (eds.) Life and Motion of Socio-Economic Units. Taylor & Francis, London (2000)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Meixner, H., Frank, A.U.: GI policy - Study on policy issues relating to geographic information in europe. Final Report of a Project ”GI Policy” in the IMPACT Program, European Commission DG XIII (July 1997),
  142. 142.
    Minsky, M.: The Society of Mind. Simon & Schuster, New York (1985)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Montello, D.: How significant are cultural differences in spatial cognition? In: Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 485–500. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Morrison, J.: The proposed standard for digital cartographic data. Amer. Cartographer 15(1), 9–140 (1988)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mounsey, H., Tomlinson, R.F. (eds.): Building Databases for Global Science. In: Proceedings of the IGU Global Database Planning Project, Tylney Hall, Hampshire, UK, May 9-13. Taylor & Francis, London (1988)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Navratil, G.: An object-oriented approach to a model of a cadaster. M.Sc., Technical University of Vienna (1998)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Neumann von, J., Morgenstern, O.: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1944)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nutter, J.: Epistemology. In: Shapiro, S. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    OGC. The open GIS consortium web page, (2000)
  150. 150.
    OMG. The object management group web page, (2000)
  151. 151.
    ONTEK. The ontek corporation web page, (2000)
  152. 152.
    Paiva, J.A.d.C., Egenhofer, M.J.: Robust inference of the flow direction in river networks. Algorithmica (to appear)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Paiva, J.A.d.C., Egenhofer, M.J., Frank, A.U.: Spatial reasoning about flow directions: Towards an ontology for river networks. In: Fritz, L., Lucas, J. (eds.) International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. XVII Congress, Washington, D.C. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 24/B3 Comission III, pp. 318–324 (1992)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Peterson, J., Hammond, K., Augustsson, L., Boutel, B., Burton, W., Fasel, J., Gordon, A.D., Hughes, J., Hudak, P., Johnsson, T., Jones, M., Meijer, E., Jones, S.P., Reid, A., Wadler, P.: The haskell 1.4 report (1997),
  155. 155.
    Peuquet, D., Smith, B., Brogaard, B.: The ontology of fields: Report of the specialist meeting held under the auspices of the varenius project, bar harbour, maine, June 1998. Technical report, NCGIA (1999)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Peyton Jones, S., Hughes, J., Augustsson, L.: Haskell 98: A non-strict, purely functional language (1999)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Pierce, B.C.: Basic Category Theory for Computer Scientists. Foundations of Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1991)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pigot, S., Hazelton, B.: The fundamentals of a topological model for a fourdimensional GIS. In: Bresnahan, P., Corwin, E., Cowen, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Charleston. IGU Commission of GIS, vol. 2, pp. 580–591 (1992)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Protege. The protege project web page, (2000)
  160. 160.
    Randell, D.A., Cohn, A.: Modelling topological and metrical properties of physical processes. In: Brachmann, R., Levesque, H., Reiter, R. (eds.) First International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, pp. 55–66. Morgan-Kaufmann, Los Altos (1989)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Randell, D.A., Cui, Z., Cohn, A.: A spatial logic based on regions and connection. In: Brachmann, R., Levesque, H., Reiter, R. (eds.) Third International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, pp. 165–176. Morgan-Kaufmann, Los Altos (1992)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Reiter, R.: Towards a logical reconstruction of relational database theory. In: Brodie, M.L., Mylopoulos, M., Schmidt, L. (eds.) On Conceptual Modelling, Perspectives from Artificial Intelligence, Databases, and Programming Languages, pp. 191–233. Springer, New York (1984)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Reiter, R.: Knowledge in Action: Logical Foundations for Describing and Implementing Dynamical Systems (in preparation)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rhoads, B.L.: Beyond pragmatism: The value of philosophical discourse for physical geography. The Annals of the Association of American Geographers 89(4), 760–771 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rosch, E.: Natural categories. Cognitive Psychology 4, 328–350 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rosch, E.: Principles of categorization. In: Rosch, E., Lloyd, B.B. (eds.) Cognition and Categorization. Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1978)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Rossmeissl, H.J., Rugg, R.D.: An approach to data exchange: The spatial data transfer standard. In: Johnson, A.I., Petterson, C.B., Fulton, J.L. (eds.) Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Mapping – Practices and Standards, pp. 38–44. ASTM, Philadelphia (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Saussure de, F.: Cours linguistique generale. Payot & Rivages, Paris (1995)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Schneider, M.: Spatial Data Types for Database Systems. LNCS, vol. 1288. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Schreiber, F.A.: Is time a real time? An overview of time ontology in informatics. In: Halang, W.A., Stoyenko, A.D. (eds.) Real Time Computing, Heidelberg. NATO ASI Series (1994)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Searle, J.R.: Speech Acts. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1969)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Searle, J.R.: The Construction of Social Reality. The Free Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Simon, P.: Parts - A Study in Ontology. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1987)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Sinton, D.: The inherent structure of information as a constraint to analysis: Mapped thematic data as a case study. In: Dutton, G. (ed.) Harvard Papers on GIS, vol. 7. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1978)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Smith, B.: An essay in formal ontology. Grazer Philosophische Studien 6, 39–62 (1978)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Smith, B.: On drawing lines on a map. In: Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 475–484. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Smith, B.: Mereotopology: A theory of parts and boundaries. Data and Knowledge Engineering 20, 287–303 (1996)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Smith, B.: Basic concepts of formal ontolgy. In: Guarino, N. (ed.) Formal Ontology in Information Systems, pp. 19–28. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1998)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Smith, B.: Objects and their environments: from aristotle to ecological ontology. In: Frank, A.U., Raper, J., Cheylan, J.-P. (eds.) Life and Motion of Socio- Economic Units. ESF Series, Taylor & Francis, London (2000)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Smith, B.: Ontology: Philosophical and computational. In: Floridi, L. (ed.) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell, Oxford (2003)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Smith, B., Brogaard, B.: Quantum mereotopology. In: Spatial and Temporal Granularity - Papers from the AAAI Workshop, vol. AAAI Technical Report WS-00-08, pp. 25–31. AAAI Press (2000)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Smith, B., Brogaard, B.: Sixteen days (2000)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Smith, B., Mulligan, K.: Framework for formal ontology. Topoi (2), 73–85 (1983)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Smith, B., Searle, J.: The construction of social reality: An exchange. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 60 (2001)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Smith, H., Poulter, K.: The role of shared ontology in XML-based trading architectures. Communications of the ACM, Special Issue on Agent Software (1999)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Snodgrass, R.: Temporal databases: Status and research directions. SIGMOD RECORD 19(4), 83–89 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Snodgrass, R.: Temporal databases. In: Frank, A.U., Formentini, U., Campari, I. (eds.) GIS 1992. LNCS, vol. 639, pp. 22–64. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Stell, J.G.: A lattice theoretic account of spatial regions (1997)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Stevens, S.S.: On the theory of scales of measurement. Science 103(2684), 677–680 (1946)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tansel, A., Clifford, J., Gadia, S., Jajodia, S., Segev, A., Snodgrass, R.: Temporal Databases. Benjamin Cummings, Redwood City (1993)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Tarski, A.: Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences. Dover Publications, Mineola (1995)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Thompson, S.: Haskell - The Craft of Functional Programming. International Computer Science Series. Addison-Wesley, Harlow (1996)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Timpf, S.: Hierarchical Structures in Map Series. PhD, Technical University Vienna (1998)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Timpf, S., Volta, G., Pollock, D., Egenhofer, M.J.: A conceptual model of wayfinding using multiple levels of abstractions. In: Frank, A.U., Formentini, U., Campari, I. (eds.) GIS 1992. LNCS, vol. 639, pp. 348–367. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Tomlin, C.D.: Digital Cartographic Modeling Techniques in Environmental Planning. Doctoral dissertation, Yale Graduate School, Division of Forestry and Environmental Studies (1983)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Tomlin, C.D.: Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modeling. Prentice Hall, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Turner, M.: The Literary Mind. Oxford University Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Tversky, B.: Spatial perspectives in descriptions. In: Bloom, P., Peterson, A., Nadel, L., Garrett, M. (eds.) Language and Space - Language, Speech, and Communciation. MIT Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Vckovski, A., Brassel, K.E., Scheck, H.-J. (eds.): INTEROP 1999. LNCS, vol. 1580. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Vckovski, A., Bucher, F.: Virtual data sets - Smart data for environmental applications, December 1995 (1998)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Vieu, L.: A logical framework for reasoning about space. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716, pp. 25–35. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Wadler, P.: Monads for functional programming. In: Jeuring, J., Meijer, E. (eds.) AFP 1995. LNCS, vol. 925. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Weiss, G.: Multi-Agent Systems: A Modern Approach to Distributed Artificial Intelligence. The MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Wierzbicka, A.: Semantics - Primes and Universals. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1996)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Worboys, M.: A model for spatio-temporal information. In: Bresnahan, P., Corwin, E., Cowen, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, vol. 2, pp. 602–611. Charleston (1992) IGU Commission of GISGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Zaniolo, C., Lockemann, P.C., Scholl, M.H., Grust, T. (eds.): EDBT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1777. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew U. Frank
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University of ViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations