Semantic Web Languages for Policy Representation and Reasoning: A Comparison of KAoS, Rei, and Ponder

  • Gianluca Tonti
  • Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
  • Renia Jeffers
  • Rebecca Montanari
  • Niranjan Suri
  • Andrzej Uszok
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2870)


Policies are being increasingly used for automated system management and controlling the behavior of complex systems. The use of policies allows administrators to modify system behavior without changing source code or requiring the consent or cooperation of the components being governed. Early approaches to policy representation have been restrictive in many ways. However semantically-rich policy representations can reduce human error, simplify policy analysis, reduce policy conflicts, and facilitate interoperability. In this paper, we compare three approaches to policy representation, reasoning, and enforcement. We highlight similarities and differences between Ponder, KAoS, and Rei, and sketch out some general criteria and properties for more adequate approaches to policy semantics in the future.


Policy Language Policy Specification Policy Rule Authorization Policy Policy Representation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianluca Tonti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
    • 1
  • Renia Jeffers
    • 1
  • Rebecca Montanari
    • 2
  • Niranjan Suri
    • 1
  • Andrzej Uszok
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC)University of West FloridaPensacolaUSA
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e SistemisticaUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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