Alternatives to Navigation

  • M. A. Hafez
  • B. Jaramaz
  • A. M. DiGioiaIII


While the surgical navigation has become a mainstream CAOS technology, there are other technologies that encompass a wide spectrum of applications and devices. Many of these are technically capable and potentially useful tools that can revolutionize the surgical management of orthopaedic conditions. However, the challenges that remain for the clinicians and developers of these systems are not only to understand what these new technologies and tools can accomplish, but also to understand their limitations. It is expected that these systems will gradually evolve in future to become more user friendly, less invasive and less expensive. Eventually these assisting technologies will permit the development of new generation of surgical procedures that surgeons are not capable of performing today because of surgical limitations.


Total Knee Arthroplasty Virtual Reality Navigation System Augmented Reality Knee Surgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Hafez
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. Jaramaz
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. M. DiGioiaIII
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.The Institute for Computer Assisted Orthopaedic SurgeryPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Western Pennsylvania HospitalPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Computer Assisted Orthopaedic SurgeryPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.The Western Pennsylvania Hospital and Robotics InstitutePittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  6. 6.University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  7. 7.Renaissance OrthopaedicsPittsburghUSA

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