Possible Conflicts between Offshore Wind Farms and Seabirds in the German Sectors of North Sea and Baltic Sea

  • Volker Dierschke
  • Stefan Garthe
  • Bettina Mendel

10.5 Conclusion

In conclusion, it is obvious that depending on avoidance behaviour and collision risk as well as on the proportions of populations affected, the impact of offshore wind farms in the German sector of the North Sea on seabird populations differs considerably. The example of Red-throated Divers and Common Guillemots shows that large parts of the German Bight would be excluded from use by these species. This has to be taken into account in the process of commissioning by authorities and should lead to the application of threshold levels in order to select wind farm sites which have least impact on seabird populations. The above examples demonstrate that in the assessment of the effects of a single wind farm, the habitat loss in addition to the habitat already lost before due to other wind farms must be considered. Therefore, this underscores the need for a cumulative approach when assessing impacts on seabird populations.


Wind Farm German Bight Seabird Species Offshore Wind Farm Collision Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atkinson-Willes GL (1972) The international wildfowl censuses as a basis for wetland evaluation and hunting rationalization. In: Carp E (ed), Proc Int Conf Conserv of Wetland and Waterfowl, Ramsar 1971:87–119Google Scholar
  2. Christensen TK, Hounisen JP (2005) Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004. NERI Report commissioned by Elsam Engineering A/SGoogle Scholar
  3. Dierschke V, Garthe S (2005) Review of the literature of ecological studies on seabirds at offshore wind farms. F+E project „Internationaler Erfahrungsaustausch zur ökologischen Begleitforschung von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen in Nord-und Ostsee“, final report part B. Forschungs-und Technologiezentrum Westküste, BüsumGoogle Scholar
  4. Dierschke V, Hüppop O, Garthe S (2003) Populationsbiologische Schwellen der Unzulässigkeit für Beeinträchtigungen der Meeresumwelt am Beispiel der in der deutschen Nord-und Ostsee vorkommenden Vogelarten. Seevögel 24:61–72Google Scholar
  5. Dierschke V, Garthe S, Markones N (2004) Aktionsradien Helgoländer Dreizehenmöwen Rissa tridactyla und Trottellummen Uria aalge während der Aufzuchtphase. Vogelwelt 125:11–19Google Scholar
  6. Durinck J, Skov H, Jensen FP, Pihl S (1994) Important marine areas for wintering birds in the Baltic Sea. Ornis Consult report 1994, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  7. Everaert J (2003) Windturbines en vogels in Vlaanderen: voorlopige onderzoeksresultaten en aanbevelingen. Natuur Oriolus 69:145–155Google Scholar
  8. Exo K-M, Hüppop O, Garthe S (2002) Offshore-Windenergieanlagen und Vogelschutz. Seevögel 23:83–95Google Scholar
  9. Garthe S (2000) Mögliche Auswirkungen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen auf See-und Wasservögel der deutschen Nord-und Ostsee. In: Merck T, von Nordheim H (eds.) Technische Eingriffe in marine Lebensräume: 113–119. BfN-Skripten 29, Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad GodesbergGoogle Scholar
  10. Garthe S, Hüppop O (2004) Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. J Appl Ecol 41:724–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garthe S, Schwemmer P (2005) Seabirds at Sea — Untersuchungen in den deutschen Meeresgebieten. Vogelwelt 126:67–74Google Scholar
  12. Garthe S, Krüger T, Kubetzki U, Weichler T (2003a) Monitoring von Seevögeln auf See: Gegenwärtiger Stand und Perspektiven. Ber Landesamtes Umweltsch Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderheft 1/2003:62–64Google Scholar
  13. Garthe S, Ullrich N, Weichler T, Dierschke V, Kubetzki U, Kotzerka J, Krüger T, Sonntag N, Helbig AJ (2003b) See-und Wasservögel der deutschen Ostsee. Verbreitung, Gefährdung und Schutz. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad GodesbergGoogle Scholar
  14. Garthe S, Dierschke V, Weichler T Schwemmer P (2004) Teilprojekt 5 — Rastvogelvorkommen und Offshore-Windkraftnutzung: Analyse des Konfliktpotenzials für die deutsche Nord-und Ostsee. In: Kellermann A et al. (eds): Marine Warmblüter in Nord-und Ostsee: Grundlagen zur Bewertung von Windkraftanlagen im Offshore-Bereich. EndberichtGoogle Scholar
  15. Garthe S, Schwemmer P, Sonntag N. Dierschke V. (in prep.) Estimation of numbers of seabirds in the German North Sea throughout the yearly cycle and their biogeographic importanceGoogle Scholar
  16. Mitschke A, Garthe S Hüppop O (2001) Erfassung der Verbreitung, Häufigkeiten und Wanderungen von See-und Wasservögeln in der deutschen Nordsee. BfN-Skripten 34, Bonn-Bad GodesbergGoogle Scholar
  17. Noer H, Christensen TK, Clausager I, Petersen IK (2000) Effects on birds of an offshore wind park at Horns Rev: Environmental impact assessment. NERI ReportGoogle Scholar
  18. Percival SM (2001) Assessment of the effects of offshore wind farms on birds. ETSU Report W/13/00565/REP, DTI/PubURN01/1434Google Scholar
  19. Petersen IK (2005) Bird numbers and distribution in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm area. Annual status report 2004. NERI Report commissioned by Elsam Engineering A/SGoogle Scholar
  20. Petersen IK, Clausager I, Christensen TK (2004) Bird numbers and distribution in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm area. Annual status report 2003. NERI Report commissioned by Elsam Engineering A/SGoogle Scholar
  21. Pettersson J (2005) The impact of offshore wind farms on bird life in southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden. Report requested by Swedish Energy AgencyGoogle Scholar
  22. Skov H, Durinck J, Leopold MF, Tasker ML (1995) Important bird areas for seabirds in the North Sea including the Channel and the Kattegat. BirdLife International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Sonntag N, Engelhard O, Garthe S (2004): Sommer-und Mauservorkommen von Trauerenten Melanitta nigra und Samtenten M. fusca auf der Oderbank (südliche Ostsee). Vogelwelt 125:77–82Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Volker Dierschke
    • 1
  • Stefan Garthe
    • 1
  • Bettina Mendel
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Technology Center (FTZ)Christian-Albrechts-University of KielBüsumGermany

Personalised recommendations