Advertisement

Falciparum Malaria

  • C. Feldman
  • G. A. Richards
Chapter
  • 1.7k Downloads

Abstract

Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world today, being the most important parasitic infection, and Plasmodium falciparum is the organism responsible for most of the mortality [1]. It has been estimated that approximately 300–500 million people contract malaria every year, with approximately 1–2 million deaths, most of these occurring in children [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Plasmodium falciparum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and measles currently compete for the title of the single most important pathogen causing human morbidity and mortality [2, 3]. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum has a wide variety of potential clinical consequences [4, 6, 7].

Keywords

Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Falciparum Malaria Severe Malaria Cerebral Malaria Severe Falciparum Malaria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Greenwood BM, Bojang K, Whitty CJM, Targett GAT (2005) Malaria. Lancet 365:1487–1498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murray CJL, Lopez AD (1997) Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: global burden of disease study. Lancet 349:1269–1276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warrell DA (1997) Cerebral malaria: clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91:875–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murphy GS, Oldfield EC III (1996) Falciparum malaria. Infect Dis Clin North Am 10:747–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trampuz A, Jereb M, Muzlovic I, Prabhu RM (2003) Clinical review: Severe malaria. Critical Care 7:315–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    White NJ, Warrel DA (1988) The management of severe malaria. In: Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor I (eds) Principles and practice of malariology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 865–888Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Health Organization (1990) Severe and complicated malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84:1–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roberts DJ, Biggs B-A, Brown G, Newbold CI (1993) Protection, pathogenesis and phenotypic plasticity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasitol Today 9:281–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greenwood BM (1997) The epidemiology of malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91:763–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Molineaux L (1996) Plasmodium falciparum malaria: some epidemiological implications of parasite and host diversity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90:379–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Urquhart AD (1994) Putative pathophysiological interactions of cytokines and phagocytic cells in severe human falciparum malaria. Clin Infect Dis 19:117–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hill AV, Allsopp CEM, Kwiatkowski D, Anstey NM, Twumasi P, et al. (1991) Common West African HLA antigens are associated with protection from severe malaria. Nature 352:595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hill AV, Elvin J, Willis AC, Aidoo M, Allsopp CEM, et al. (1992) Molecular analysis of the association of HLA B 53 and resistance to severe malaria. Nature 360:434–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Allan RJ, Rowe A. Kwiatkowski D (1993) Plasmodium falciparum varies in its ability to induce tumor necrosis factor. Infect Immun 61:4772–4776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McGuire W, Knight JC, Hill AVS, Allsopp CEM, Greenwood BM, et al. (1999) Severe malarial anemia and cerebral malaria are associated with different tumor necrosis factor promoter alleles. J Infect Dis 179:287–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McGuire W, Hill AVS, Allsopp CEM, Greenwood BM, Kwiatkowski D (1994) Variation in the TNF-α promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. Nature 371:508–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Idro R, Jenkins NE, Newton CRJC (2005) Pathogenesis, clinical features, and neurological outcome of cerebral malaria. Lancet Neurol:827–840Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    WHO (2000) Severe falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94(Suppl 1):1–90Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clark IA, Alleva LM, Mills AC, Cowden WB (2004) Pathogenesis of malaria and clinically similar conditions. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:509–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mackintosh CL, Beeson JG, Marsh K (2004) Clinical features and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Trends Parasitol 20:597–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bruneel F, Hocqueloux L, Alberti C, Wolff M, Chevret S, Bedos J-P, Durand R, Le Bras J, Regnier B, Vachon F (2003) The clinical spectrum of severe imported falciparum malaria in the intensive care unit. Report of 188 cases in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:684–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dondorp AM, Chau TTH, Phu NH, Mai NTH, Loc PP, Chuong LV, Sinh DX, Taylor A, Hien TT, White NJ, Day NPJ (2004) Unidentified acids of strong prognostic significance in severe malaria. Crit Care Med 32:1683–1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chiwakata CB, Manegold C, Bonicke L, Waase I, Julch C, Dietrich M (2001) Procalcitonin as a parameter of disease severity and risk of mortality in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis 183:1161–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chirenda J, Siziya S, Tshimanga M (2000) Association of HIV infection with the development of severe and complicated malaria cases at a rural hospital in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med 46:5–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lawn SD (2004) AIDS in Africa: the impact of coinfections on the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. J Infect 48:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    White NJ (2004) Antimalarial drug resistance. J Clin Invest 113:1084–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pasloske BL, Howard RJ (1994) Malaria, the red cell, and the endothelium. Annu Rev Med 45:283–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berendt AR, Turner GDH, Newbold CI (1994) Cerebral malaria: the sequestration hypothesis. Parasitol Today 10:412–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    MacPherson GG, Warrell MJ, White NJ, Looareesuwan S, Warrell DA (1985) Human cerebralmalaria. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of parasitized erythrocyte sequestration. Am J Pathol 119:385–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dondorp AM, Pongponratn E, White NJ (2004) Reduced microcirculatory flow in severe falciparum malaria: pathophysiology and electron-microscopic pathology. Acta Tropica 89:309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kirchgatter K, Del Portillo HA (2005) Clinical and molecular aspects of severe malaria. An Acad Bras Cienc 77:455–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Armah H, Dodoo AK, Wiredu EK, Stiles JK, Adjei AA, Gyasi RK, Tettey Y (2005) High-level cerebellar expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules in fatal, paediatric, cerebral malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:629–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miller LH, Good MF, Milon G (1994) Malaria pathogenesis. Science 264:1878–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Phillips RE, Warrell DA (1986) The pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria. Parasitol Today 2:271–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Warrell DA, Looareeuwan S, Phillips RE, White NJ, Warrel MJ, et al. (1986) Function of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in human cerebral malaria: rejection of the permeability hypothesis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35:882–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Usawattanakul W, Tharavanij S, Warrell DA, Looareesuwan W, White NJ, et al. (1985) Factors contributing to the development of cerebral malaria II. Endotoxin. Clin Exp Immunol 61:562–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grau GE, de Kossodo S (1994) Cerebral malaria: mediators, mechanical obstruction or more? Parasitol Today 10:408–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clark IA, Chaudhri G, Cowden WB (1989) Roles of tumour necrosis factor in the illness and pathology of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83:436–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clark IA, Rockett KA, Cowden WB (1991) Proposed link between cytokines, nitric oxide and human cerebral malaria. Parasitol Today 7:205–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clark IA, Rockett KA (1994) The cytokine theory of human cerebral malaria. Parasitol Today 10:410–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coltel N, Combes V, Hunt NH, Grau GE (2004) Cerebral malaria — a neurovascular pathology with many riddles still to be solved. Curr Neurovasc Res 1:91–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vespa P (1998) Neurological complications of critical medical illnesses and transplantation. Curr Opin Crit Care 4:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bain BJ, Chiodini PL, England JM, Bailey JW (1997) The laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Clin Lab Haem 19:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Perandin F, Manca N, Calderaro A, Piccolo G, Galati L, Ricci L, Medici MC, Arcangeletti MC, Snounou G, Dettori G, Chezzi C (2004) Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium ovale for routine clinical diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 42:1214–1219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Farcas GA, Zhong KJ, Lovegrove FE, Graham CM, Kain KC (2003) Evaluation of the Binax NOWICT test versus polymerase chain reaction and microscopy for the detection of malaria in returned travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:589–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Durand F, Crassous B, Fricker-Hidalgo H, Carpentier F, Brion JP, Grillot R, Pelloux H (2005) Performance of the Now Malaria rapid diagnostic test with returned travellers: a 2-year retrospective study in a French teaching hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect 11:903–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pamba A, Maitland K (2004) Fluid management of severe falciparum malaria in African children. Tropical Doctor 34:67–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maitland K, Pamba A, English M, Peshu N, Levin M Marsh K, Newton CRJC (2005) Pre-transfusion management of children with severe malarial anaemia: a randomized controlled trial of intravascular volume expansion. Br J Haematol 128:393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Riddle MS, Jackson JL, Sanders JW, Blazes DL (2002) Exchange transfusion as an adjunct therapy in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria: A meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 34:1192–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Molyneux M, Fox R (1993) Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Britain. Br Med J 306:1175–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    White NJ (1996) Current concepts: the treatment of malaria. N Engl J Med 335:800–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lesi A, Meremikwu M (2004) High first dose quinine regimen for treating severe malaria. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Issue 3. John Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    White NJ, Nosten F, Looareeuwan S, Watkins WM, Marsh K, et al. (1999) Averting a malaria disaster. Lancet 353:1965–1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoffman SL (1996) Artemether in severe malaria — still too many deaths. N Engl J Med 335:124–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tran TH, Day NP, Nguyen HP, Nguyen TH, Tran TH, Pham PL, Dinh XS, Ly VC, Ha V, Waller D, Peto TE, White NJ (1996) A controlled trial of artemether or quinine in Vietnamese adults with severe falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 335:76–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mohanty S, Mishara SK, Satpathy SK, Dash S, Patnaik J (1997) α, β-Arteether for the treatment of complicated falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91:328–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    van Hensbroek MB, Onyiorah E, Jaffar S, Schneider G, Palmer A, et al. (1996) A trial of artemether or quinine in children with cerebral malaria. N Engl J Med 335:69–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    van Vugt M, Brockman A, Gemperli B, Luxemburger C, Gathmann I, et al. (1998) Randomized comparison of artemether-benflumetol and artesunate-mefloquine in treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Awad MI, Alkadru AMY, Behrens RH, Baraka OZ, Eltayeb IB (2003) Descriptive study on the efficacy and safety of artesunate suppository in combination with other antimalarials in the treatment of severe malaria in Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Aceng JR, Byarugaba JS, Tumwine JK (2005) Rectal artemether versus intravenous quinine for the treatment of cerebral malaria in children in Uganda: randomized clinical trial. BMJ 330:334–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ashley EA, White NJ (2005) Artemisinin-based combinations. Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:531–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Whitty CJM, Ansah E, Reyburn H (2005) Treating severe malaria. BMJ 330:317–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    South East Asian Quinine Artesunate Malaria Trial (SEAQUAMAT) Group (2005) Artesunate versus quinine for treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a randomized trial. Lancet 366:717–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McIntosh HM, Olliaro P (2000) Artemisinin derivatives for treating severe malaria. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Issue 2. John Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Huda SN, Shahab T, Ali SM, Afzal K, Khan HM (2003) A comparative clinical trial of artemether and quinine in children with severe malaria. Indian Pediatr 40:939–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Adam I, Idris HM, Mohamed-Ali AA, Aelbasit IA, Elbashir MI (2002) Comparison of intramuscular artemether and intravenous quinine in the treatment of Sudanese children with severe falciparum malaria. East Afr Med J 79:621–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Haynes RK, Krishna S (2004) Artemisinins: activities and actions. Microbes Infection 6:1339–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Newton PN, Angus BJ, Chierakul W, Dondorp A, Ruangveerayuth R, Silamut K, Teerapong P, Suputtamongkol Y, Looareesuwan S, White NJ (2003) Randomized comparison of artesunate and quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Clin Infect Dis 37:7–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Krudsood S, Wilairatana P, Vannaphan S, Treeprasertsuk S, Silachamroon U, Phomrattanaprapin W, Gourdeuk VR, Brittenham GM, Looareesuwan S (2003) Clinical experience with intravenous quinine, intramuscular artemeter and intravenous artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34:54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mohanty AK, Rath BK, Mohanty R, Samal AK, Mishra K (2004) Randomized control trial of quinine and artesunate in complicated malaria. Indian J Pediatr 71:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Woodrow CJ, Haynes RK, Krishna S (2005) Artemisinins. Postgrad Med J 81:71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Menard D, Matsika-Claquin MD, Djalle D, Yapou F, Manirakiza A, Dolmazon V, Sarda J, Talarmin A (2005) Association of failures of seven-day courses of artesunate in a non-immune population in Bangui, central African Republic with decreased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:616–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jambou R, Legrand E, Niang M, Khim N, Lim P, Volney B, Ekala MT, Bouchier C, Esterre P, Fandeur T, Mercereau-Puijalan O (2005) Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates to in-vitro artemether and point mutations of the SERCA-type PfATPase6. Lancet 366:1960–1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Duffy PE, Sibley CH (2005) Are we losing artemisinin combination therapy already? Lancet 366:1908–1909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maitland K, Makanga M, Williams TN (2004) Falciparum malaria: current therapeutic challenges. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:405–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Warrell DA, Looareesuwan S, Warrell M, Kasemsarn P, Intaraprasert R, et al. (1982) Dexamethasone proves deleterious in cerebral malaria. A double-blind trial in 100 comatose patients. N Engl J Med 306:313–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hoffman SL, Rustama D, Punjabi NH, Surampaet B, Sanjaya B, et al. (1988) High dose dexamethasone in quinine-treated patients with cerebral malaria: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 158:325–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Looareesuwan S, Warrell DA, White NJ, Sutharasamai P, Chanthavanich, et al. (1983) Do patients with cerebral malaria have cerebral oedema? A computed tomography study. Lancet i:434–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilairatana P, Looareesuwan S (1995) APACHE II scoring for predicting outcome in cerebral malaria. J Trop Med Hyg 98:256–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marik P, Varon J (2004) The management of status epilepticus. Chest 126:582–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Trang TTM, Phu NH, Vinh H, Hien TT, Cuong BM, et al. (1992) Acute renal failure in patients with severe falciparum malaria. Clin Infect Dis 15:874–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wilairatana P, Westerlund EK, Ausudkij B, Vannaphan S, Krudsood S, et al. (1999) Treatment of malarial acute renal failure by hemodialysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bunchman TE (2004) Fluid overload in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: prediction of survival. Crit Care Med 32:1805–1806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ronco C, Bellomo R, Homel P, Brendolan A, Dan M, Piccinni P, LaGreca G (2000) Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomized trial. Lancet 356:26–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brealey D, Brand M, Hargreaves I, Heales S, Land J, Smolenski R, Davies NA, Cooper CE, Singer M (2002) Association between mitochondrial dysfunction and severity and outcome of septic shock. Lancet 360:219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Panosian CB (1998) Editorial response: Exchange blood transfusion in severe falciparum malaria — the debate goes on. Clin Infect Dis 26:853–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    White NJ, Warrell DA, Chanthavanigh P, Looareesuwan S, Warrell MJ, et al. (1983) Severe hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 309:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bruneel F, Gachot B, Timsit JF, Wolff M, Bedos JP, et al. (1997) Shock complicating severe falciparum malaria in European adults. Intensive Care Med 23:698–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Beeson JG, Duffy PE (2005) The immunology and pathogenesis of malaria during pregnancy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 297:187–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Adam I, Mirghani OA, Saed OK, Ahmed SM, Mohamadani AA, Ahmed HM, Mackenzie CD, Homeida MM, Elbashir MI (2004) Quinine therapy in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy in Sudan. East Mediterr Health J 10:159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Newton CRJC, Taylor TE, Whitten RO (1998) Pathophysiology of fatal falciparum malaria in African children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58:673–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Marsh K, Forster D, Waruiru C, Mwangi I, Winstanley M, et al. (1995) Indicators of life-threatening malaria in African children. N Engl J Med 332:1399–1404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Marsh K, English M, Crawley J (1996) The pathogenesis of severe malaria in African children. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90:395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    O’Dempsey TJ, McArdle TF, Laurence BE, Lamont AC, Todd JE, et al. (1993) Overlap in the clinical features of pneumonia and malaria in African children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87:662–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Allen SJ, O’Donnell A, Alexander NDE, Clegg JB (1996) Severe malaria in children in Papua New Guinea. QJ Med 89:779–788Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brewster DR, Kwiatkowski D, White NJ (1990) Neurological sequelae of cerebral malaria in children. Lancet 336:1039–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Greenwood BM (1997) What’s new in malaria control? Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91:523–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    WHO Malaria Unit (1993) Global malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 71:281–284Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tripathi RP, Mishra RC, Dwivedi N, Tewari N, Verma SS (2005) Current status of malaria control. Curr Med Chem 12:2643–2659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Brown GV (1993) Chemoprophylaxis of malaria. Med J Aust 159:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Playfair JHL, Taverne J, Bate CAW, de Souza JB (1990) The malaria vaccine: anti-parasite or anti-disease? Immunol Today 11:25–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Clark IA, Rockett KA (1994) Immunizing against toxic malarial antigens. Parasitol Today 10:6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Amador R, Patarroyo M (1996) Malaria vaccines. J Clin Immunol 16:183–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kwiatkowski D, Marsh K (1997) Development of a malaria vaccine. Lancet 350:1696–1701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Urdaneta M, Prata A, Stuchiner CJ, Tosta CE, Tauil P, et al. (1998) Evaluation of SPf66 malaria vaccine efficacy in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58:378–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stoute JA, Slaoui M, Heppner DG, Momin P, Kester KE, et al. for the RTS, S Malaria Vaccine Evaluation Group (1997) A preliminary evaluation of a recombinant circumsporozoite protein vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 336:86–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Greenwood B (2005) Malaria vaccines evaluation and implementation. Acta Tropica 95:298–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shibui A, Shiibashi T, Nogami S, Sugano S, Watanabe J (2005) A novel method for development of malaria vaccines using full-length cDNA libraries. Vaccine 23:4359–4366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Moorthy VS, Good MF, Hill AVS (2004) Malaria vaccine developments. Lancet 363:150–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Graves P, Gelband H (2003) Vaccines for preventing malaria. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Issue 1. John Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Feldman
    • 1
  • G. A. Richards
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineJohannesburg Hospital and University of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations