Advertisement

Other Allergic Skin Disorders

Chapter
  • 2.5k Downloads

Abstract

In this chapter we discuss allergic skin disorders other than atopic dermatitis (AD): the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), protein contact dermatitis (PCD), phytodermatitis, allergic photodermatitis and allergic vasculitis.

Keywords

Kawasaki Disease Allergy Clin Immunol Allergic Contact Dermatitis Chronic Urticaria Natural Rubber Latex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Acciai MC, Brusi C, Francalanci S, Gola M, Sertoli A (1991) Skin tests with fresh foods. Contact Dermatitis 24:67–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams RM (1991) Recent advances in contact dermatitis. Ann Allergy 67:552–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akasawa A, Matsumoto K, Saito H et al Incidence of latex allergy in atopic children and hospital workers in Japan. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1993; 101:177–181Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alangari AA, Twarog FJ, Shih MC, Schneider LC (2004) Clinical features and anaphylaxis in children with cold urticaria. Pediatrics 113:e313–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amitai Y, Gillis D, Wasserman D, Kochman RH. Henoch-Schönlein purpura in infants. Pediatrics 1993; 92:865–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andri L, Senna GE, Faccioni F, Givanni S, Betteli C, Cavalleri MP (1992) Patologia allergica in odontoiatria. G Ital Allergol Immunol Clin 2:75–85Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Angelini G, Meneghini CL (1987) Contact allergy in children. Pediatr Dermatol News 6:195–204Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Armstrong JL, Lantz AB, Jerath RS, Meyer CF (2001) Urticaria, angioedema, and an elevated eosinophil count in an adolescent. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 87:457–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Artik S, Haarhuis K, Wu X, Begerow J, Gleichmann E (2001) Tolerance to nickel: oral nickel administration induces a high frequency of anergic T cells with persistent suppressor activity. J Immunol 167:6794–6803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asero R, Lorini L, Tedeschi A (2004) Chronic autoreactive urticaria at six years of age. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 14:343–345Google Scholar
  11. ll.
    Athreya BH (1995) Vasculitis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 42:1238–1262Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azana JM, Torrelo A, Mediero IG, Zambrano A (1994) Urticaria pigmentosa: a review of 67 pediatric cases. Pediatr Dermatol 11:102–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balaban J (2002) Medicaments as the possible cause of urticaria in children. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 10:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balato N, Patruno C, Lembo G, Auricchio L, Ayala F (1989) Dermatiti da contatto in età pediatrica. Med Bambino 8:504–511,554Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barakat A, Castaldo AJ (1993) Hereditary angioedema: danazol therapy in a 5-year-old child. Am J Dis Child 147:931–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bardana EJ, Montanaro A (1991) Formaldehyde: an analysis of its respiratory, cutaneous, and immunologic effects. Ann Allergy 66:441–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bardare M, Cohen E, Vaccari A (1989) Current views on the pathogenesis of vasculitis in children. Pediatr Med Chir 11[Suppl l]:3–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bardare M, Magnolfi C (1985) Orticaria cronica in età pediatrica. Med Bambino 4:712–714Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barlow RJ, Ross EL, Macdonald DM, Kobza Black A, Greaves MW (1995) Mast cells and T lymphocytes in chronic urticaria. Clin Exp Allergy 25:317–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnetson RStC, Gawkrodger DJ (1993) Eczema and contact dermatitis — pathophysiology. In: Holgate ST, Church MK (eds) Allergy. Gower Medical Publishing, London, pp 23.1-10Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barron KS, Montalvo JF, Joseph AK et al (1990) Soluble in-terleukin-2 receptors in children with Kawasaki syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 33:1371–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baur X, Chen Z, Rozynek P, Düser M, Raulf-Heimsoth M (1995) Cross-reacting IgE antibodies recognizing latex allergens, including Hev b 1, as well as papain. Allergy 50:604–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baxevanis CN, Papadopoulos NG, Katsarou-Katsari A, Papamichail M (1994) Regulation of allergen-specific immune response by CD4+ CD45+ cells in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:917–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bazzoni G, Dejana E (1991) Molecole coinvolte nelle interazioni tra endotelio e leucociti Atti 20th Congresso della SIAIC. OIC Medical Press, Rome, pp 303–307Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Beezhold DH, Hickey VL, Kostyal DA et al (2003) Lipid transfer protein from Hevea brasiliensis (Hev b 12), a cross-reactive latex protein. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 90:439–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berlioz M, Triolo V, Sirvent N, Albertini M (2001) Churg-Strauss syndrome revealed by acute abdominal pain. Pediatr Pulmonol 32:92–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Berg RE, Kantor GR, Bergfeld WF (1988) Urticarial vasculitis. Int J Dermatol 27:468–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beyer K, Castro R, Feidel C, Sampson HA (2002) Milk-induced urticaria is associated with the expansion of T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109:688–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bilbao A, Garcia JM, Pocheville I et al (1999) Round table: urticaria in relation to infections. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 27:73–85Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Birmingham PK, Suresh S (1999) Latex allergy in children: diagnosis and management. Indian J Pediatr 66:717–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blanco C, Carrillo T, Castillo R, Quiralte J, Cuevas M (1994) Latex allergy: clinical features and cross-reactivity with fruits. Ann Allergy 73:309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blanco R, Martinez-Taboada VM, Rodriguez-Valverde V, Garcia-Fuentes M (1998) Cutaneous vasculitis in children and adults. Associated diseases and etiologic factors in 303 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 77:403–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blauvelt A, Hwang ST, Udey MC(2003) 11. Allergic and immunologie diseases of the skin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:S560–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bodemer C (1992) Vascularites allergiques chez l’enfant. Ann P’ediatr 39:426–434Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Boyle RJ, Nikpour M, Tang MLK (2005) Hereditary angiooedema in children: A management guideline. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 16:288–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brehler R, Theissen U, Mohr C, Luger T (1997) Latex-fruit syndrome: frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies. Allergy 52:404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bressler RB (1995) Pathophysiology of chronic urticaria. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:659–677Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bruckner AL, Weston WL, Morelli JG (2000) Does sensitization to contact allergens begin in infancy? Pediatrics 105:e3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cadnapaphornchai MA, Saulsbury FT, Norwood VF (2000) Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis: report of a pediatric case. Pediatr Nephrol 14:328–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cantani A, Gagliesi D (1996) Severe reactions to cow’s milk in very young infants at risk of atopy. Allergy Asthma Proc 17:205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cantani A, Bellioni B, Ragno V, Businco L (1990) Epidemiologia e storia naturale dell’allergia alimentare: Follow-up di 88 bambini fino a 14 anni. Aggiorn Pediatr 41:321–332Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Casale TB, Sampson HA, Hanifin J et al (1988) Guide to physical urticarias. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82:758–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ceuppens JL, Van Durme P, Dooms-Gossens A (1992) Latex allergy in patient with allergy to fruit (letter). Lancet 339: 493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Champion RH (1990) A practical approach to the urticarial syndromes — a dermatologist’s view. Clin Exp Allergy 20: 221–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Charlesworth EN (1996) Urticaria and angioedema: a clinical spectrum. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 76:484–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Claveau J, Lavoie A, Brunet C, Bédard P-M, Hébert J (1993) Chronic idiopathic urticaria: possible contribution of histamine-releasing factor to pathogenesis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92:132–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cohen PR, Cardullo AC, Ruszkowski AM, DeLeo VA (1990) Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in children with atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy 65:73–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Conde Salazar L, del Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez-Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives: a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crespo JF, Pascual C, Dominguez C, Ojeda I, Muñoz FM, Esteban MM (1995) Allergic reactions associated with airborne fish particles in IgE-mediated fish hypersensitive patients. Allergy 50:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cuisset L, Drenth JPH, Berthelot JM et al (1999) Genetic linkage of the Muckle-Wells syndrome to chromosome Iq44. Am J Hum Genet 65:1054–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Curtis N, Zheng R, Lamb JR, Levin M (1995) Evidence for a superantigen mediated process in Kawasaki disease. Arch Dis Child 72:308–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Czarnetzki BM (1986) Urticaria. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Czarnetzki BM (1989) Is urticaria an allergic disease? Allergologie 12:155–157Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dalai I, Levine A, Somekh E, Mizrahi A, Hanukoglu A (2000) Chronic urticaria in children: expanding the „autoimmune kaleidoscope“. Pediatrics 106:1139–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    DeAmicis T, Mofid MZ, Cohen B, Nousari HC (2002) Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis: report of a 12-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Am Acad Dermatol 47 [5 Suppl]:S273–S274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    De Greef H, Dooms-Goossens A (1987) Dermatite allergica da contatto in età infantile in Belgio. Pediatr Dermatol News 6:209–211Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    De Groot AC(1990) Labelling cosmetics with their ingredients. BMJ 300:1636–1638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    DeLeo VA (1997) Photocontact dermatitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 17:451–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Martino M, Peruzzi M, Galli L, Lega L, Zammarchi E, Vierucci A (1992) Food-additive intolerance and its correlation with atopy in children with recurrent or intermittent urticaria-angioedema. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 3:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    De Martino M, Peruzzi M, Rossi ME, Galli L, Novembre E, Vierucci A (1991) Meccanismi etiopatogenetici della sindrome orticaria-angioedema nel bambino. Prosp Pediatr 21:37–48Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    DeVillez RL (1995) Urticaria pigmentosa. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:775–784Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dodé C, Le Du N, Cuisset L et al (2002) New mutations of CIAS1 that are responsible for Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold urticaria: a novel mutation underlies both syndromes. Am J Hum Genet 70:1498–1506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dotterud LK, Falk ES (1995) Contact allergy in relation to hand eczema and atopic diseases in north Norwegian schoolchildren. Acta Pædiatr 84:402–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dover J, Black A, Ward A, Greaves MW (1988) Delayedpressure urticaria: clinical features, laboratory investigation, and response to therapy in 44 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 18:1289–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ehlers I, Niggemann B, Binder C, Zuberbier T(1998) Role of nonallergic hypersensitivity reactions in children with chronic urticaria. Allergy 53:1074–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Eseverri JL, Botey J, Cozzo M, Pena M, Marin AM (1999) Prevalence of allergy to latex in the pediatric population. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 27:133–1440Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eseverri JL, Cozzo M, Castillo M, Marin A (1999) Round table: immunological urticaria mediated by IgE. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 27:104–111Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Esper F, Shapiro ED, Weibel C, Ferguson D, Landry ML, Kahn JS (2005) Association between a novel human coronavirus and Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis 191:499–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fabiani JA, Avigliano A, Dupont JA (2000) Hereditary angioedema. Long-term follow-up of 88 patients. Experience of the Argentine Allergy and Immunology Institute. Allergol Immunopathol 28:267–271Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Farkas H, Harmat G, Fust G, Varga L, Visy B (2002) Clinical management of hereditary angio-oedema in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:153–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ferguson TA, Dube P, Griffith TS (1994) Regulation of contact hypersensitivity by interleukin 10. J Exp Med 179: 1597–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fink CW (1986) Vasculitis. Pediatr Clin North Am 33:1203–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fiocchi A, Restani P, Ballabio C et al (2001) Severe anaphylaxis induced by latex as a contaminant of plastic balls in play pits. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:298–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fisher AA (1990) Adverse nail reactions and paresthesia from „photobonded acrylate sculptured nails“. Cutis 45: 293–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fisher AA (1994) Allergic contact dermatitis in early infancy. Cutis 54:300–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fisher AA (1994) Patch testing in children including early infancy. Cutis 1994; 54:387–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fisher TI, Hansen J, Kreilgård B, Maibach HI (1989) The science of patch test standardization. Immunol Clin North Am 9:417–434Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Furukawa S, Imai K, Matsubara T et al (1992) Increased levels of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in Kawasaki disease. Arthritis Rheum 35:672–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gabrielli A (1991) Diagnosi immunologica delle vasculiti. Atti 200 Congresso della Società Italiana di Allergologia ed Immunologia Clinica. OIC Medical Press, Rome, pp 316–321Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Galimberti M, Cantone R, Parachini F, Forgnone A (1989) L’allergia da contatto ha un ruolo nelle dermatiti del infanzia? Notiz Allergol 8:212–217Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gardner-Medwin JM, Dolezalova P, Cummins C, Southwood TR (2002) Incidence of Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Kawasaki disease, and rare vasculitides in children of different ethnic origins. Lancet 360:1197–1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gaspari AA (1997) The role of keratinocytes in the pathophysiology of contact dermatitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 17:377–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gelmetti C, Barbagallo C, Cerri D, De Mattia D, Bonifazi E (1985) Acute haemorrhagic oedema of the skin in infants, clinical and pathogenic observations in seven cases. Bull Dermatol Pediatr 4:23–24Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Giordano-Labadie F, Rance F, Pellegrin F, Bazex J, Dutau G, Schwarze HP (1999) Frequency of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis: results of a prospective study of 137 cases. Contact Dermatitis 40:192–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gonçalo S, Gonçalo M, Azenha A et al (1992) Allergie contact dermatitis in children. Contact Dermatitis 26:113–115Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Goodman M, Sulzberger M (1938) Acquired specific hypersensitivity to simple chemicals, eczematous sensitivity to clothing and cosmetics, with special reference to dyes. J Allergy 9:136–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Govoni MR, Strumia R, De Rosa E, Malgutti L, De Sanctis V (2001) Edema emorragico acuto dell’infanzia. Presentazione di un caso clinico. Riv Ital Pediatr 27:811–813Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Grattan CEH, Francis DM, Hide M, Greaves MW (1991) Detection of circulating histamine releasing autoantibodies with functional properties of anti-IgE in chronic urticaria. Clin Exp Allergy 21:696–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Greaves MW (1993) Chronic urticaria. N Engl J Med 332: 1767–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Guillet MH, Guillet C (1993) Food urticaria in children. Allergol Immunol 25:333–338Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Haas N, Hermes B, Henz BM (2001) Adhesion molecules and cellular infiltrate: histology of urticaria. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 6:137–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hide M, Francis DM, Grattan CEH, Hakimi J, Kochan JP, Greaves MW (1993) Autoantibodies against the highaffinity IgE receptor as a cause of histamine release in chronic urticaria. N Engl J Med 28:1599–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hoffman HM, Gregory SG, Mueller JL et al (2003) Fine structure mapping of CIAS 1: identification of an ancestral haplotype and a common FCAS mutation, L353P. Hum Genet 112:209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hollenberger H, Gruber E, Frank B (2002) Severe anaphylactic shock without exanthema in a case of unknown latex allergy and review of the literature. Paediatr Anaesth 12:544–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hossny E, Aboul-Magd M, Bakr S (2001) Increased plasma eotaxin in atopic dermatitis and acute urticaria in infants and children. Allergy 56:996–1002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jacques P, Lavoie A, Bédard PM, Brunet C, Hébert J (1992) Chronic idiopathic urticaria: profiles of skin mast cell histamine release during active disease and remission. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:1139–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jaeger D, Kleinhans D, Czuppon AB, Baur X (1992) Latexspecific proteins causing immediate-type cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, and systemic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:759–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jones EM, Callen JP (1991) Collagen vascular diseases of childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am 38:1019–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kaeser P, Revelly ML, Frei PC (1994) Prevalence of IgE antibodies specific for food allergens in patients with chronic urticaria of unexplained origin. Allergy 49:626–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kalogeromitros D, Katsarou A, Armenaka M, Polizou E, Zografakis I, Stratigos I (1995) Familial cold urticaria: a father and daughter with typical clinical and laboratory features. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 74:295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kamide R, Niimura M, Ueda H et al (1989) Clinical evaluation of ketotifen for chronic urticaria: multicenter double-blind comparative study with clemastine. Ann Allergy 62:322–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kaniwa MA, Isama K, Nakamura A et al (1994) Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing and chemical analysis. Application to cases from rubber footwear. Contact Dermatitis 30:26–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kaplan AP (1998) Urticaria and angioedema. In: Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW (eds) Allergy: principles and practice, 5th edn. CV Mosby, St Louis, pp 1104–1122Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kapsenberg ML, Wierenga EA, Stiekma FE, Tiggelman AM, Bos JD (1992) TH1 lymphokine production profiles of nickel-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte clones from nickel contact allergic and non-allergic individuals. J Invest Dermatol 98:59–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kapsenberg ML, Wierenga EA, van der Heijden FL et al (1992) Allergen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes in contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. In: Wüthrich B (ed) Highlights in allergy and clinical immunology. Hogrefe & Huber, Bern, pp 242–246Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kato S, Ebina K, Naganuma H, Sato S-i, Maisawa S-i, Nakagawa H (1996) Intestinal IgA deposition in Henoch-Schönlein purpura with severe gastro-intestinal manifestations. Eur J Pediatr 155:91–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Katz SI (1990) Mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86:670–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kawasaki T (1967) Acute febrile mucocutaneous syndrome with lymphoid involvement with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes in children. Jpn J Allergy 16:178–222Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kelly KJ (1995) Management of the latex-allergic patient. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:139–157Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kivity S, Schwartz Y, Wolf R, Topilsky M (1990) Systemic cold-induced urticaria. Clinical and laboratory characterization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:52–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kontou-Fili K, Borici-Mazi R, Kapp A et al (1997) Physical urticaria: classification and diagnostic guidelines. An EAACI position paper. Allergy 52:504–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kwittken PL, Sweinberg S, Campbell DE, Pawlowski NA (1995) Latex hypersensitivity in children: clinical presentation and detection of latex-specific immunoglobulin E. Pediatrics 95:693–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    La Rosa M, Leonardi S, Marchese G et al (2001) Doubleblind multicenter study on the efficacy and tolerability of cetirizine compared with oxatomide in chronic idiopathic urticaria in preschool children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 87:48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lagier F, Vervloet D, Lhermet I, Poyen D, Charpin D (1992) Prevalence of latex allergy in operating room nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:319–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lahti A, Maibach HI (1989) Immediate contact reactions. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 9:463–478Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Landsteiner K, Jablons B (1914) Über die Bildung von Antikörpern gegen verändertes arteigenes Serumeiweiß. Z Immunitätsforsch Exp Ther 20:618–621Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lawlor F (1993) Urticaria — diagnosis and treatment. In: Holgate ST, Church MK (eds) Allergy. Gower Medical Publishing, London, pp 22.1–22.12Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lazarous MC, Kerdel FA (2002) Topical tacrolimus protoptic. Drugs Today (Barc) 38:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lefvert AK(1993) Recurrent angioedema caused by circulating immune complexes containing antibodies against bovine proteins. Int Arch Allergy Clin Immunol 102:112–116Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Legrain V, Legian S, Taieb A, Battin J, Maleville J (1991) Juvenile acute hemorrhagic edema of the skin: study of ten cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 24:17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Leiferman K, Norris P, Murphy G, Hawk J, Winkelmann RK (1989) Evidence for eosinophil degranulation with deposition of granule major basic protein in solar urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol 21:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lepore L (1990) Le vasculiti. Inquadramento generale. Med Bambino 9:563–568Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Leung DYM, Meissner HC, Fulton DR, Murray DL, Kotzin BL, Schlievert PM (1993) Toxin shock syndrome toxinsecreting Staphylococcus aureus in Kawasaki syndrome. Lancet 342:1385–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lin TL, Wang CR, Liu MF et al (2001) Multiple colonic ulcers caused by Churg-Strauss syndrome in a 15-year-old girl. Clin Rheumatol 20:362–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lisi P (1993) Dermatite da contatto endogeno ai metalli di origine alimentare. G Ital Allergol Immunol Clin 3:215–222Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Llátser R, Zambrano C, Guillaumet B (1994) Anaphylaxis to natural rubber latex in a girl with food allergy. Pediatrics 94:736–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lorenzi S, Vezzani C, Vincenzi C, Tosti A (1994) Sensibilizzazione del alcol oleilico da cosmetici e medicamenti topici. Boll Dermatol Allergol Profess 9:185–189Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Luger TA, Schwarz T (1995) The role of cytokines and neuroendocrine hormones in cutaneous immunity and inflammation. Allergy 50:292–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Luong KVQ, Nguyen LT (1998) Aquagenic urticaria: report of a case and review of the literature. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 80:483–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    MacGregor DM (2001) The risks of ear piercing in children. Scott Med J 46:9–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Maibach HI, Dannaker CJ, Lahti A (1993) Contact skin allergy. In: Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW (eds) Allergy: principles and practice, 4th edn. CV Mosby, St Louis, pp 1605–1647Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Sorva R, Juntunen-Backman K (1992) Latex dummies as allergens (letter). Lancet 339: 1608–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Turjanmaa K, Cacioli P (1993) Is cow’s milk casein an allergen in latex-rubber gloves? (letter). Lancet 342:863–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Martin-Munoz MF, Munoz-Robles ML, Gonzalez P, Martin-Esteban M (2002) Immediate heat urticaria in a child. Br J Dermatol 147:813–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Martini A, Ravelli A, Albani S, De Benedetti F, Massa M, Wisnieski JJ (1994) Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome with severe systemic manifestations. J Pediatr 124:742–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Martorell A, Sanz J (1999) Round table: urticaria with a physical cause. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 27:85–96Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Matsumoto T, Miyazaki T (2004) Systemic urticaria in an infant after ingestion of processed food that contained a trace quantity of wheat. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 93:98–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Meneghini CL, Angelini G (1982) Le dermatiti da contatto. Lombardo Editore, RomeGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Meneghini CL, Bonifazi E (1983) Dermatologia pediatrica pratica. Clinica Dermatologica, Università di Bari, BariGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Miller SD, Pritchard D, Crowley JP (1992) Blood histamine levels following graded cold challenge in atypical acquired cold urticaria. Ann Allergy 68:27–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Monfrecola G, Masturzo E, Riccardo AM, Balato F, Ayala F, Di Costanzo MP (2000) Solar urticaria: a report on 57 cases. Am J Contact Dermat 11:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Morales C, Peñarrocha M, Bagán JV, Burchés E, Pelaez A (1994) Immunological study of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. Lack or response to food additive challenge. Clin Exp Allergy 25:260–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Morris-Jones R, Robertson SJ, Ross JS, White IR, McFadden JP, Rycroft RJ (2002) Dermatitis caused by physical irritants. Br J Dermatol 147:270–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Mortureux P, Leaute-Labreze C, Legrain-Lifermann V, Lamireau T, Sarlangue J, Taieb A (1998) Acute urticaria in infancy and early childhood: a prospective study. Arch Dermatol 134:319–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mortz CG, Andersen KE (1999) Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents. Contact Dermatitis 41: 121–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mouterde O, Mallet E, Spriet J (1997) Syncope during bathing in infants, a pediatric form of water-induced urticaria? Arch Pediatr 4:1111–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Nagata S, Yamashiro Y, Maeda M, Ohtsuka Y, Yabuta K (1993) Immunohistochemical studies on small intestinal mucosa in Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Res 33:557–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nash MC, Shah V, Dillon MJ (1995) Soluble cell adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor in children with Kawasaki disease. Cell Exp Immunol 101:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Nethercott JR, Holness DL (1989) The positive predictive value of patch tests in the evaluation of patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Immunol Clin North Am 9: 549–554Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Nieto A, Pamies R, Mazon A (2002) Peculiarities of latex allergy and preventive measures in the pediatric age group. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 30:148–156Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Norris P, Murphy G, Hawk J, Winkelmann RK (1988) A histological study of the evolution of solar urticaria. Arch Dermatol 124:80–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Novembre E, Bernardini R, Brizzi I et al (1997) The prevalence of latex allergy in children seen in a university hospital allergy clinic. Allergy 50:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Offidani A, Cellini A, Bossi G (2001) Acute haemorrhagic oedema of the skin in infancy. Eur J Dermatol 11:63–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Oranje AP, Bruijnzeel DP, Stenveld HJ, Dieges PH (1994) Immediate-and delayed-type contact hypersensitivity in children older than 5 years with atopic dermatitis: a pilot study comparing different tests. Pediatr Dermatol 11:209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Orfan NA, Kolski GB (1992) Angioedema and C1 inhibitor deficiency. Ann Allergy 69:167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Orfan NA, Kolski GB (1993) Physical urticarias. Ann Allergy 71:205–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ormerod AD (1993) Urticaria — pathophysiology. In: Holgate ST, Church MK (eds) Allergy. Gower Medical Publishing, London, pp 21.1–21.12Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Osier W (1888) Hereditary angio-neurotic oedema. Am J Med Sci 1888; 95:362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ostrov MR (1995) Dramatic resolution of chronic rounds. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 75:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ownby DR (1995) Manifestations of latex allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:31–43Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Pachor ML, Urbani G, Cortina P et al (1989) Is the Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome related to the exposure to food additives? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 667: 393–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Park YW, Han JW, Park IS et al (2005) Epidemiologie picture of Kawasaki disease in Korea, 2000–2002. Pediatr Int 47:382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Parker RK, Crowe MJ, Guin JD (1992) Aquagenic urticaria. Cutis 50:283–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Pascual C, Martin Esteban M, Crespo JF (1992) Fish allergy: evaluation of the importance of cross-reactivity. J Pediatr 121:S29–S34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pietra BA, DeInocencio J, Giannini EH, Hirsch R (1994) T cell receptor Vβ family repertoire and T cell activation markers in Kawasaki disease. J Immunol 153:1881–1888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pigatto P, Finzi AF (1986) Up-date on urticaria. Minerva Med 77:1401–1406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Pittman T, Kiburz J, Gabriel K, Steinhardt G, Williams D, Slater J (1995) Latex allergy in children with spina bifida. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Putterman C, Barak V, Caraco Y, Neuman T, Shalit M (1993) Episodic angioedema with eosinophilia: a case associated with T cell activation and cytokine production. Ann Allergy 70:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Plumb J, Norlin C, Young PC et al (2001) Exposures and outcomes of children with urticaria seen in a pediatric practice-based research network: a case-control study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155:1017–1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Rademaker M, Forsyth A (1991) Contact dermatitis in children. Contact Dermatitis 20:104–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ronkainen J, Nuutinen M, Koskimies O (2002) The adult kidney 24 years after childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 360:666–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Raika G (1987) Allergic contact dermatitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol News 6:205–208Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Ring J (1988) Dermatologic diseases secondary to food allergy and pseudoallergy. Nestlé Nutr Workshop Ser 17:271–287Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ring J, Przybilla B (1989) UV irradiation and allergy. Allergologie 12:75–79Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Roberts TE, Pearson DJ (1991) Urticaria and angioedema. World of allergy. Fisons, London, pp 11–14Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Rodriguez M, Vega F, Garcia MT et al (1993) Hypersensitivity to latex, chestnut, and banana. Ann Allergy 70:31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Romagnani S, Emmi L, Almerigogna F. Vasculiti. In: Romagnani S, Almerigogna F, Emmi L (eds) Malattie del sistema immunitario. McGraw-Hill Libri Italia, Milan, pp 282–314Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rosenfeld EA, Corydon KE, Shulman ST (1995) Kawasaki disease in infants less than one year of age. J Pediatr 126:524–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Roul S, Ducombs G, Taieb A (1999) Usefulness of the European standard series for patch testing in children. A 3-year single-centre study of 337 patients. Contact Dermatitis 40:232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Sakata K, Kita M, Imanishi J, Onouchi Z, Liu Y, Mitsui Y (1995) Effect of Kawasaki disease on migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pediatr Res 38:501–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Santaolalla Montoya M, Martinez Molero MI, Santaolalla San Juana F, Baeza ML, Alonso Lebrero E, Zapatero Remon L (2002) Cold urticaria:review of 12 cases. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 30:259–262Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Saraclar Y, Tinaztepe K, Adalioglu G, Tuncer A (1990) Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHAI): a variant of Henoch Schönlein purpura or a distinct clinical entity? J Allergy Clin Immunol 86:473–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Schafer CM (1995) Physical urticaria. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:679–699Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Schneider AT, Silverman BA (1988) Skin manifestations. In: Chiaramonte LT, Schneider AT, Lifshitz F (eds) Food allergy. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 193–211Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sevila A, Romaguera C, Vilaplana J, Botella R (1994) Contact dermatitis in children. Contact Dermatitis 30: 292–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sertoli A, Francalanci S, Gola M (1989) Patologia cutanea da contatto con proteine. Notiz Allergol 8:182–187Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Shah UK, Jacobs IN (1999) Pediatric angioedema: ten years’ experience. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125: 791–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Sheyyab-Al M, Shanti-El H, Ajlouni S, Sawalha D, Daoud A (1995) The clinical spectrum of Henoch-Schönlein purpura in infants and young children. Eur J Pediatr 154: 969–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Shulman ST, De Inocencio J, Hirsch R (1995) Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Clin North Am 42:1205–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Silvers WS (1992) Exercise-induced allergies: the role of histamine release. Ann Allergy 68:58–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Simons FE (2001) Prevention of acute urticaria in young children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:703–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Simons FER, Sussman GL, Simons KJ (1995) Effect of the H2-antagonist cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the H1-antagonists hydroxyzine and cetirizine in patients with chronic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:685–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Slater JE (1994) Latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:139–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Smith CH, Soh C, Lee TH (1992) Cutaneous histamine metabolism in urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:944–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Sommer S, Wilkinson SM, Beck MH, English JS, Gawkrodger DJ, Green C (2002) Type IV hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex: results of a multicentre study. Br J Dermatol 146:114–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Sorva R, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Suvilehto K, Juntunen-Backman K, Haahtela T (1995) Latex allergy in children with no known risk factor for latex sensitization. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 6:36–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Stafford CT (1990) Urticaria as a sign of systemic disease. Ann Allergy 64:264–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Stern G (1927) Überempfindlickeit gegen Kautschuk als Ursache von Urticaria and Quinckeschem Ödem. Klin Wochenschr 6:1096–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Stingeni L, Lapomarda V, Assalve D, Caraffini S, Lisi P (1995) Dermatite da contatto in età adolescenziale. G Ital Allergol Immunol Clin 5:91–94Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Storrs FJ (1991) Contact dermatitis caused by drugs. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 11:509–523Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Supramanian G, Warner JO (1986) Artificial food additive intolerance in patients with angio-edema and urticaria. Lancet ii:907–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Sussman GL, Yang WH, Steinberg S (1992) Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic considerations. Ann Allergy 69:187–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Taub DD, Conlon K, Lloyd AR, Oppenheim JJ, Kelvin DJ (1993) Preferential migration of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in response to MIP-la and MIP-lβ. Science 260:355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Theriault A, Whaley K, McPhaden AR, Boyd E, Connor JM (1990) Regional assignment of the human Cl-inhibitor gene to 11qll-ql3.1. Hum Genet 84:477–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Tomazic VJ, Shampaine EL, Lamanna A, Withrow TJ, Adkinson NF Jr, Hamilton RG (1994) Cornstarch powder on latex products is an allergen carrier. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Thestrup-Pedersen K (1997) Contact allergy in monozygous twins. Contact Dermatitis 36:52–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Thestrup-Pedersen K, Larsen CG, Ronnevig J (1989) The immunology of contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 20:81–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Tillie-Leblond I, Gösset Ph, Janin A et al (1988) Increased interleukin-production during the acute phase of the syndrome of episodic angioedema and hypereosinophilia. Clin Exp Allergy 28:491–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Tillie-Leblond I, Gösset Ph, Janin A et al (1994) Tumor necrosis factor-α release during systemic reaction in cold urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:501–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Tönshoff B, Momper R, Scweer H, Schärer K, Seyberth HW (1992) Increased biosynthesis of vasoactive prostanoids in Schönlein-Henoch purpura. Pediatr Res 32:137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Torres P, Guerra F, Miguel R, Moreno C, Santamaría M, Sanches-Guijo P (1993) Study of lymphocyte subpopulations at different stages of contact dermatitis. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 3:294–299Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Tosti A, De Padova MP, Manuzzi P, Bardazi F (1987) Contact cheilitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol News 6:212–215Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Treudler R, Tebbe B, Steinhoff M, Orfanos CE (2002) Familial aquagenic urticaria associated with familial lactose intolerance. J Am Acad Dermatol 47:611–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Trevisan G, Briscik E, Kokelj F (1987) Shoe-induced contact cheilitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol News 6:220–223Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Trevisi P, Vincenzi C, Chieregato C, Guerra L, Tosti A (1994) Sunscreen sensitization: a three-year study. Dermatology 189:55–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Truscott W (1995) The industry perspective on latex. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:89–121Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Tsuchida S, Yamanaka T, Tsuchida R, Nakamura Y, Yashito M, Yanagawa H (1996) Epidemiology of infant Kawasaki disease with a report of the youngest neonatal case ever reported in Japan. Acta Pædiatr 85:995–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Alesius H, Palosuo T (1995) Natural rubber latex allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:71–88Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Valentini RD, Smoyer WE, Sedman AB et al (1998) Outcome of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies-positive glomerulonephritis and vasculitis in children: a single-center experience. J Pediatr 132:325–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Vallier P, Balland S, Harf R, Valenta R, Deviller P (1995) Identification of profilin as an IgE-binding component in latex from Hevea brasiliensis: clinical implications. Clin Exp Allergy 25:332–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Van Hoogstraten IMW, Andersen KE, vonBlomberg BME et al (1991) Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age. Clin Exp Immunol 85:441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Vega ML, Vega J, Vega JM, Moneo I, Sanchez E, Miranda A (2003) Cutaneous reactions to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in pediatric population. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 14:482–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Veien NK, Krogdahl A (1991) Cutaneous vasculitis induced by food additives. Acta Derm Venereol 71:73–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Veien NK, Bochorst E, Hattel T, Lauerberg G (1994) Stomatitis or systemically-induced contact dermatitis from metal wire in orthodontic materials. Contact Dermatitis 30:210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Vena GA, Cassano N, D’Argento V, Foti C, Angelini G (1996) Orticaria cronica e fisica:patogenesi e trattamento. Boll Dermatol Allergol Profess 11:89–104Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Venzor J, Baer SC, Huston DP (1995) Urticarial vasculitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:761–774Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Vervloet D, Charpin D, Pradal M (1992) Atopy and drug allergy. ACI News 4:43–48Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Vita D, Passalacqua G, Caminiti L, Barberio G, Pajno GB (2004) Successful combined therapy for refractory chronic urticaria in a 10-year-old boy. Allergy 59:10021–11022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Volonakis M, Katsarou-Katsari A, Stratigos J (1992) Etiologic factors in childhood chronic urticaria. Ann Allergy 69:61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Waage Nielsen E, Thidemann Johansen H, Holt J, Mollnes TE (1994) C1 inhibitor and diagnosis of hereditary angioedema in newborns. Pediatr Res 35:184–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Wahlgren C-F (1992) Pathophysiology of itching in urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Allergy 47:65–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Waldo FB, Leist PA, Strife CF, Forristal J, West CD (1985) Atypical hypocomplementemic vasculitis syndrome in a child. J Pediatr 106:745–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Wanderer AA (1995) The spectrum of cold urticaria. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 15:701–723Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Wang SJ, Yang YH, Lin YT, Tsai MJ, Chiang BL (2000) Childhood Churg-Strauss syndrome: report of a case. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 33:263–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Warren RW, Perez MD, Wilking AP, Myones BL (1994) Pediatric rheumatic diseases. Pediatr Clin North Am 41:783–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Wasserman D, Preminger A, Zlotogorski A (1994) Aquagenic urticaria in a child. Pediatr Dermatol 11:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Weidenbach H, Beckh KH, Lerch MM, Adler G (1993) Precipitation of hereditary angioedema by infectious mononucleosis (letter). Lancet 342:934–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Weinreb BD, Jamper R, Hood AF, Brusilo SW, Eggleston PA (1987) Pruritus and rash after bathing in a 12-year-old girl. Ann Allergy 59:254–255; 307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Williams PB, Buhr MP, Weber RW, Voiz Ma, Koepke JW, Seiner JC (1995) Latex allergen in respirable particulate air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:88–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Williams-Arya P, Hogan MB, Wilson NW (1996) Solar urticaria in a 6-year-old child. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 76:141–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wisnieski JJ, Emancipator SN, Korman NJ, Lass JH, Zaim TM, McFadden ER (1994) Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome in identical twins. Arthritis Rheum37:1105–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Wüthrich B, Bianchi-Kusch E, Johansson SGO (1996) Allergic urticaria and angioedema caused by a hemostatic sponge of bovine fibrin used in tooth extraction. Allergy 51:49–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Yamashiro Y, Nagata S, Oguchi S, Shimizu T(1996) Selective increase of Vβ2+ T cells in the small intestinal mucosa in Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Res 39:264–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Yashiro M et al (1998) Results of the nationwide epidemiologic survey of Kawasaki disease in 1995 and 1996 in Japan. Peditrics 102:E65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Yang YJ, Hung CF, Hsu CR et al (2005) A nationwide survey on epidemiological characteristics of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura in Taiwan. Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:618–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Yi ES, Colby TV (2001) Wegener’s granulomatosis. Semin Diagn Pathol 18:34–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Yilmaz M, Kendirli SG, Altintas D, Bingol G (2000) Hereditary angioedema: case report of a family. Turk J Pediatr 42:230–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Ying S, Kikuchi Y, Meng Q, Kay AB, Kaplan AP (2002) TH1/ TH2 cytokines and inflammatory cells in skin biopsy specimens from patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria: comparison with the allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous reaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109:694–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Zuberbier T, Schwarz S, Hartman K, Pfrommer C, Czarnetzki BM (1996) Histamine releasability of basophils and skin mast cells in chronic urticaria. Allergy 51:24–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Zuraw BL (1993) C1 inhibitor deficiency and autoimmunity. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 13:441–457Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Zweiman B (1992) The skin as a site of allergic reactions. In: Godard P, Bousquet J, Michel FB (eds) Advances in allergology and clinical immunology. Parthenon, Lancs, pp 497–505Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Zweiman B, Valenzano M, Atkins PC, Tanus T, Getsy JA (1996) Characteristics of histamine-releasing activity in the sera of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Personalised recommendations