Sonstige biologische Therapieverfahren (EKT, Schlafentzugsbehandlung, Lichttherapie, TMS, VNS) — Theoretische und empirische Grundlagen sowie klinische Anwendungsprinzipien

  • S. Kasper

Auszug

Seit Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts wurden mehrere pharmakologische, aber auch nichtpharmakologische, biologisch fundierte Therapien zur Behandlung der Depression eingeführt (⊡ Abb. 28.1). Unter den nichtpharmakologischen Behandlungen hat sich die Elektrokrampftherapie (EKT) weltweit als eine effektive Behandlungsform bei einer spezifischen Indikationsstellung etabliert (ECT Review Group 2003; American Psychiatric Association/APA 2001; Folkerts et al. 1996). Der therapeutische Schlafentzug (SE) wird hingegen vorwiegend in Deutsch land und mit wenigen Ausnahmen, hauptsächlich in Forschungszentren, auch in den USA, durchgeführt. Das therapeutische Potenzial sowie die darin einbegriffenen Wirkmechanismen sind monografisch zusammengefasst worden (Kasper u. Möller 1996). Untersuchungen über die Lichttherapie (LT) wurden von der Gruppe am NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health, USA) um Rosenthal (Rosenthal et al. 1984) zuerst veröffentlicht, jedoch auch umfangreich im deutschsprachigen Raum durchgeführt (Winkler et al. 2002). Sie gilt heute als die Standard behandlung für die Herbst-Winter-Depressionen (saisonal abhängige Depression/ SAD) und deren subsyndromale Form. Durch eine klinische Beobachtung und durch Hinweise aus der Literatur, dass bei gesunden Kontrollpersonen eine Veränderung der Befindlich keit auftritt, wurde die bei den Neurologen als Diagnostikum angewandte transkranielle Magnetstimulation (TMS) erstmals von der Bonner Arbeitsgruppe um Kasper und Möller bei depressiven Patienten eingesetzt (Höflich et al. 1991).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abrams R (2002) Electroconvulsive therapy, 4th ed. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams R, Swartz CM, Vedak C (1991) Antidepressant effect of high-dose right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48: 746–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2001) The practice of electroconvulsive therapy: Recommendations for treatment, training and privileging. A task force report. 2nd ed. APA, Washington/DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey P, Bremer F (1938) A sensory cortical representation of the vagus nerve. J Neurophysiology 405–412Google Scholar
  5. Bhanji S, Roy GA (1975) The treatment of psychotic depression by sleep deprivation: a replication study. Br J Psychiatry 127: 222–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston JL (1985) Noninvasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet 2: 1106–1107Google Scholar
  7. Berger M, Vollmann J, Hohagen F et al. (1995) Treating depression with sleep deprivation and consecutive sleep phase advance therapy. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 7: 50–51Google Scholar
  8. Bolwig TG (1984) The influence of electrically-induced seizures on deep brain structures. In: Lerer B, Weiner RD, Belmaker RH (eds) ECT: Basic mechanisms. Libbey, London, pp 132–138Google Scholar
  9. Buddeberg C, Dittrich A (1978) Psychologische Aspekte des Schlafentzuges. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 225: 249–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burg W van den, van den Hoofdakker RH (1975) Total sleep deprivation on endogenous depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32: 1121–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerletti U, Bini L (1938) Un nuovo metodo di shocktherapie »L’elettroshock«. Bollettino cademia Medica Roma 64: 136–138Google Scholar
  12. Counter SA (1993) Neurobiological effects of extensive transcranial electromagnetic stimulation in an animal model. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 89: 341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. d’Elia G, Raotma H (1975) Is unilateral ECT less effective than bilateral ECT? Br J Psychiatry 126: 83–89Google Scholar
  14. Der Spiegel (1995) Blitzschlag ins Hirn. Der Spiegel 10: 214–217Google Scholar
  15. Dessauer M, Goetze U, Tölle R (1985) Periodic sleep deprivation in drug-refractory depression. Neuropychobiology 13: 111–116Google Scholar
  16. Devanand DP, Dwork AJ, Hutchinson ER et al. (1994) Does ECT alter brain structure? Am J Psychiatry 151: 957–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dilsaver SC, Jaeckle RS (1990) Winter depression responds to an open trial of tranylcypromine. J Clin Psychiatry 51: 326–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dilsaver SC, Del Medico VJ, Quadri A, Jaeckle RS (1990) Pharmacological responsiveness of winter depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 26: 303–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ebert D (1996) Bildgebende Verfahren bei Schlafentzug. In: Kasper S, Möller HJ (Hrsg.) Therapeutischer Schlafentzug. Klinik und Wirkmechanismen. Springer, Wien New York, S 203–212Google Scholar
  20. Ebert D, Feistel H, Barocka A (1991) Effects of sleep deprivation on the limbic system and the frontal lobes in affective disorders: A study with Tc99 m HMPAO SPECT. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 40: 247–251Google Scholar
  21. ECT Review Group (2003) Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 361: 799–808Google Scholar
  22. Elsenga S, van den Hoofdakker RH (1988) Body core temperature and depression during total sleep deprivation in depressives. Biol Psychiatry 24: 531–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fähndrich E (1982) Schlafentzugsbehandlung depressiver Syndrome bei schizophrener Grunderkrankung. Nervenarzt 53: 179–285Google Scholar
  24. Fleischhacker WW, Kasper S (1991) Timing of phototherapy and occurance of mania. Biol Psychiatry 29: 1156–1160Google Scholar
  25. Folkerts H (1995) Elektrokrampftherapie bei neurologischen Krankheiten. Nervenarzt 66: 241–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Folkerts H, Bender S, Erkwoh R et al. (1996) Entwurf einer Stellungnahme der DGPPN zur Elektrokrampftherapie. Nervenarzt 67: 509–514Google Scholar
  27. George MS, Rush AJ, Marangell L (2005) A one-year comparison of vagus nerve stimulation with treatment as usual for treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry 58: 364–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. George MS, Wassermann EM, Williams WA et al. (1995) Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. Neuro Report 6: 1–6Google Scholar
  29. George MS, Nahas Z, Bohning DE et al. (2000) Vagus nerve stimulation: A new form of therapeutic brain stimulation. CNS Spectrums 5: 2–11Google Scholar
  30. Gerner RO, Post RM, Gillin JC, Bunney WE (1979) Biological and behavioral effects of one night’s sleep deprivation in depressed patients and normals. J Psychiatr Res 15: 21–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Goetze U, Tölle R (1981) Antidepressive Wirkung des partiellen Schlafentzuges während der 1. Hälfte der Nacht. Psychiatr Clin 14: 129–149Google Scholar
  32. Greenberg BD, George MS, Martin JD et al. (1997) Effect of prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A preliminary study. Am J Psychiatry 154: 867–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Grisaru N, Yarovslavsky U, Abarbanel J et al. (1994) Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression and schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 4: 287–288Google Scholar
  34. Hajak G, Padberg F, Herwig U et al (2005) Repetitive Transkranielle Magnetstimulation. Konsensus zum therapeutischen Einsatz bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen. Nervenheilk 24: 48–58Google Scholar
  35. Haag C, Padberg F, Möller HJ (1997) Transkranielle Magnetstimulation (TMS). Nervenarzt 68: 274–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Heßelman B, Habeler A, Praschak-Rieder N et al. (1999) Mirtazapine in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) — a preliminary report. Hum Psychopharmacol 14: 59–62Google Scholar
  37. Hilger E, Willeit M, Praschak-Rieder N et al. (2001) Reboxetine in seasonal affective disorder: An open trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 11: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Höflich G, Kasper S, Hufnagel A, Möller HJ (1991) Transcranical magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy in major depression (Poster). 17. AGNP-Symposium, Nürnberg, 2.–5.10.1991Google Scholar
  39. Höllich G, Kasper S, Hufnagel A et al. (1993) Application of transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of drug-resistant major depression — a report of two cases. Hum Psychopharmacol 8: 361–365Google Scholar
  40. Hollwich F (1955) Der Einfluß des Augenlichtes auf die Regulation des Stoffwechsels. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 23: 95–136Google Scholar
  41. Hufnagel A, Claus D, Brunhölzl C, Sudhop T (1993) Short-term memory: No evidence of effect of rapid-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy individuals. J Neurol 240: 373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacobsen FM, Murphy DL, Rosenthal NE (1989) The role of serotonin in seasonal affective disorder and the antidepressant response to phototherapy. In: Rosenthal NE, Blehar MC (eds) Seasonal affective disorders and phototherapy. Guilford, New York, pp 333–341Google Scholar
  43. Jha AK, Stein GS, Fenwick P (1996) Negative interaction between lithium and electroconvulsive therapy — a case control study. Br J Psychiatry 168: 241–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kammer T, Spitzer M (1996) Getriggerte transkranielle Magnetstimulation bei höheren kognitiven Funktionen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 64: 205–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kasper S (1990) Schlafentzugstherapie — eine Chance bei Antidepressiva-Nonresponse? In: Möller HJ (Hrsg) Therapieresistenz unter Antidepressivabehandlung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokio, S 149–165Google Scholar
  46. Kasper S (1994) Diagnostik, Epidemiologie und Therapie der saisonal abhängigen Depression (SAD). Nervenarzt 65: 69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kasper S, Möller HJ (1996) Therapeutischer Schlafentzug. Klinik und Wirkmechanismen. Springer, Wien New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Kasper S, Neumeister A (1998) Non-pharmacological treatments for depression — focus on sleep deprivation and light therapy. In: Briley M, Montgomery S (eds) Antidepressant therapy at the dawn of the third millennium. Dunitz, London, pp 255–278Google Scholar
  49. Kasper S, Praschak-Rieder N (1997) Diagnosis and treatment of subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (S-SAD). In: Judd L, Saletu B, Filip V (eds) Basic and clinical science of mental and addictive disorders (Bibl Psychiatr. No. 167). Karger, Basel, pp. 11–20Google Scholar
  50. Kasper S, Wehr TA (1992) The role of sleep and wakefulness in the genesis of depression and mania. L’Encephale 18: 45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kasper S, Wehr TA, Rosenthal NE (1988 a) Saisonal abhängige Depressionsformen (SAD). I. Grundlagen und klinische Beschreibung des Syndroms. Nervenarzt 59: 191–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kasper S, Wehr TA, Rosenthal NE (1988 b) Saisonal abhängige Depressionsformen (SAD). II. Beeinflussung durch Phototherapie und biologische Ergebnisse. Nervenarzt 59: 200–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kasper S, Katzinski L, Richter P, Lenarz T (1988 c) Auditory evoked potentials and total sleep deprivation in depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 25: 91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kasper S, Rogers LBS, Yancey A et al. (1989 a) Phototherapy in individuals with and without subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46: 837–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kasper S, Wehr TA, Bartko JJ et al. (1989 b) Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood and behavior. A telephon survey of Montgomery County, Maryland, USA. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46: 823–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kasper S, Wehr TA, Sack DA (1989 c) Therapeutischer Schlafentzug und Energiehaushalt. In: Pflug B, Lemmer B (Hrsg) Chronopharmakologie und Chronobiologie. Antidepressiva, Schlafentzug, Licht. Fischer, Stuttgart New York, S 53–79Google Scholar
  57. Kasper S, Voll G, Vieira A, Kick H (1990) Response to total sleep deprivation before and during treatment with fluvoxamine or maprotiline in patients with major depression — Results of a double blind study. Pharmacopsychiatry 23: 135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kasper S, Ruhrmann, Haase T, Möller HJ (1992) Recurrent brief depression and its relationship to seasonal affective disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 242: 20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kasper S, Ruhrmann S, Neumann S, Möller HJ (1994 a) Use of light therapy in German psychiatric hospitals. Europ Psychiatry 9: 288–292Google Scholar
  60. Kasper S, Ruhrmann S, Schuchardt HM (1994 b) The effects of light therapy in treatment indications other than seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In: Holick MF, Jung EG (eds) Biologic effects of light therapy. De Gruyter, Berlin New York, pp 206–218Google Scholar
  61. Kasper S, Neumeister A, Rieder-Praschak N et al. (1996) Serotonergic mechanisms in the pathophysiology and treatment of seasonal affective disorder. In: Holick MF, Jung EG (eds) Biological effects of light 1995. De Gruyter, Berlin New York, pp 325–331Google Scholar
  62. Kolbinger HM, Höflich G, Hufnagel A et al. (1995) Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of major depression — a pilot study. Human Psychopharmacology 10: 305–310Google Scholar
  63. Kuhs H (1995) Stufen in der Behandlungsresistenz bei depressiven Störungen, definiert nach somatotherapeutischen Verfahren. Nervenarzt 66: 561–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kuhs H, Tölle R (1986) Schlafentzug (Wachtherapie) als Antidepressivum. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 54: 341–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lam RW, Gorman CP, Michalon M et al. (1995) Multi-centre, placebocontrolled study of fluoxetine in seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 152: 1765–1770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Leppamaki S, Partonen T, Vakkuri O et al. (2003) Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13: 137–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewy AJ, Kern HA, Rosenthal NE, Wehr TA (1982) Bright artificial light treatment of a manic-depressive patient with a seasonal mood cycle. Am J Psychiatry 139: 1496–1498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewy AL, Sack RL, Miller S, Hoban TM (1987) Antidepressant and circadian phase-shifting effects of light. Science 235: 352–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lingjaerde O, Haggag A (1992) Moclobemide in winter depression: some preliminary results form an open trial. Nord J Psychiatry 46: 201–203Google Scholar
  70. Lippmann SB, El-Mallakh R (1994) Can electroconvulsive therapy be given during lithium treatment. Lithium 5: 205–209Google Scholar
  71. Lit A (1973) Elektroschock en slaaponthouding. Tijdschr Psychiatrie 15: 56–64Google Scholar
  72. MacLean PD (1990) The triune brain in evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Manthey I, Richter G, Richter J et al. (1983) Untersuchungsansatz und erste Ergebnisse zur Wirkung des Schlafentzuges beim depressiven Syndrom. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol 34: 398–404Google Scholar
  74. Marangell LB, George MS, Rush AJ et al. (2001) Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) continues to show therapeutic benefit for chronic or recurrent treatment resistant depression up to two years after implant [Abstract]. U.S. Psychiatric & Mental Health Congress, Boston/MA (November 16–18, 2001)Google Scholar
  75. Marcolin MA, Padberg F (2007) (eds) Transcranial brain stimulation for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  76. Martiny K, Lunde M, Simonsen C et al. (2004) Relapse prevention by citalopram in SAD patients responding to 1 week of light therapy. A placebo-controlled study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109: 230–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Martinez B, Kasper S, Ruhrmann S, Möller HJ (1994) Hypericum in the treatment of seasonal affective disorders. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 7: 29–33Google Scholar
  78. Matussek N, Ackenheil M, Athen D et al. (1974) Catecholamine metabolism under sleep deprivation therapy of improved and not improved depressed patients. Pharmacopsychiatry 7: 114–198Google Scholar
  79. McGrath RE, Buckwald B, Resnick EV (1990) The effect of L-tryptophan on seasonal affective disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 51: 162–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Meduna L von (1937) Konvulsionstherapie bei Schizophrenie. Carl Marhold, HalleGoogle Scholar
  81. Modell JG, Rosenthal NE (2004) Once-daily bupropion XL for the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes. Neuropsychopharmacology 29(Suppl 1): S 157Google Scholar
  82. Möller HJ (1991) Therapieresistenz auf Antidepressiva: Risikofaktoren und Behandlungsmöglichkeiten. Nervenarzt 62: 658–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Moscovitch A, Blashko CA, Eagles JM et al. and the International Collaborative Group on Sertraline in the Treatment of Outpatients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (2004) A placebo-controlled study of sertraline in the treatment of outpatients with seasonal affective disorder. Psychopharmacology 171: 390–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Neumeister A, Gössler R, Lucht M et al. (1996) Bright light therapy stabilizes the antidepressant effect of partial sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry 39: 16–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Neumeister A, Praschak-Rieder N, Heßelmann B et al. (1997 a) Effects of tryptophan depletion on drug-free patients with seasonal affective disorder during a stable response to bright light therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54: 133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Neumeister A, Praschak-Rieder N, Heßelmann B et al. (1997 b) Rapid tryptophan depletion in drug-free depressed patients with seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 154: 1153–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Neumeister A, Praschak-Rieder N, Heßelmann B et al. (1998 a) Effects of tryptophan depletion in drug-free depressed patients who responded to total sleep deprivation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Neumeister A, Turner E, Matthews J et al. (1998 b) Effects of tryptophan depletion versus catecholamine depletion in patients with seasonal affective disorder in remission with light therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 524–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. O’Rourke D, Wurtman JJ, Wurtman RJ et al. (1989) Treatment of seasonal affective disorder with d-fenfluramine. J Clin Psychiatry 50: 343–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Oren DA, Mould DE, Schwartz PJ et al. (1994)A controlled trial of levodopa plus carbidopa in the treatment of winter seasonal affective disorder: A test of the dopamine hypothesis. J Clin Psychopharmacol 14: 196–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Padberg F, Möller HJ (2003) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: does it have potential in the treatment of depression? CNS Drugs 17: 383–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Padberg F, Großheinrich N, Schönfeldt-Lecuona C, Pogarell O (2006) Neues zur Vagusnervstimulation und Tiefenhirnstimulation bei Depressionen. Nervenheilk 25: 635–640Google Scholar
  93. Partonen T, Lönnqvist J (1996) Moclobemide and fluoxetine in treatment of seasonal affective disorder. J Affect Disord 41: 93–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pascual-Leone A, Houser CM, Reese K et al. (1993) Safety of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal volunteers. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 89: 120–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Pascual-Leone A, Rubino B, Pallardo F, Catala M (1996) Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression. Lancet 348: 233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Penry JK, Dean JC (1990) Prevention of intractable partial seizures by intermittent vagal stimulation in humans: Preliminary results [Abstract]. Epilepsy 31(Suppl): S40–S43Google Scholar
  97. Pflug B, Tölle R (1971) Therapie endogener Depression durch Schlafentzug — Praktische und theoretische Konsequenzen. Nervenarzt 42: 117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pjrek E, Winkler D, Stastny J et al. (2004) Bright light therapy in seasonal affective disorder-does it suffice? European Neuropsychopharmacology 14: 347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Pjrek E, Winkler D, Stastny J et al. (2007) Escitalopram in seasonal affective disorder: results of an open trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 40:20–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pjrek E, Winkler D, Konstantinidis A, Willeit M et al. (2007) Agomelatine in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. Psychopharmacology 190: 575–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Post A, Keck ME (2001) Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry: What do we know about the neurobiological mechanisms? J Psychiatric Res 36: 193–2156Google Scholar
  102. Post RM, Kotin J, Goodwin FK (1976) Effects of sleep deprivation on mood and central amine metabolism in depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 627–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Puri BK, Lewis SW (1996) Transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatric research. Br J Psychiatry 169: 675–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosen LN, Targum SD, Terman M et al. (1990) Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes. Psychiatry Res 31: 131–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin JC et al. (1984) Seasonal affective disorder: A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 72–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Jacobsen FM et al. (1986) Melatonin in seasonal affective disorder. J Neural Transm 21(Suppl 2): 257–267Google Scholar
  107. Rossini D, Magri L, Lucca A et al (2005) Does rTMS hasten the response to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine in patients with major depressive disorder? A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 66: 1569–1575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Royal College of Psychiatrists (1989) The practical administration of ECT. Freeman CP, Crammer JL, Deakin JFW et al. (eds). Gaskell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  109. Ruhrmann S, Kasper S, Hawellek B et al. (1993) Fluoxetine as a treatment alternative to light therapy in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Pharmacopsychiatry 26: 193Google Scholar
  110. Rush AJ, Marangell L, Sackeim H et al (2005) Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a randomized, controlled acute phase trial. Biol Psychiatry 58: 347–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rush AJ, George MS, Sackeim HA et al. (2000) Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment-resistant depressions: A multicenter study. Biol Psychiatry 47: 276–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sack DA, Nurnberger J, Rosenthal NE et al. (1985) The potentiation of antidepressant medications by phase-advance of sleep-wake cycle. Am J Psychiatry 142: 606–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sack DA, Duncan W, Rosenthal NE et al. (1988) The timing and duration of sleep in partial sleep deprivation therapy of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 77: 219–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sackeim HA (1994) Magnetic stimulation therapy and ECT (commentary). Convulsive Ther 10: 255–258Google Scholar
  115. Sackeim HA, Prudic J, Devanand DP et al. (1993) Effects of stimulus intensity and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy. N Engl J Med 328: 839–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sackeim HA, Devanand DP, Nobler MS (1995) Electroconvulsive therapy. In: Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ (eds) Psychopharmacology: The fourth generation of progress. Raven, New York, pp 1123–1141Google Scholar
  117. Sackeim HA, Keilp JG, Rush AJ et al. (2001 a) The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on cognitive performance in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 14: 53–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sackeim HA, Haskett RF, Mulsant BH et al. (2001 b) Continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse following electroconvulsive therapy: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 285: 1299–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sakel M (1935) Neue Behandlungsmethode der Schizophrenie. Moritz Perles, Wien LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  120. Sauer H, Lauter H (1987 a) Elektrokrampftherapie. I. Wirksamkeit und Nebenwirkungen der Elektrokrampftherapie. Nervenarzt 58: 201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sauer H, Lauter H (1987 b) Elektrokrampftherapie. II. Indikationen, Kontraindikationen und therapeutische Technik der Elektrokrampftherapie. Nervenarzt 58: 210–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Scheyen JD van (1977) Slappdeprivatie bij de behandling van unipolaire (endogene) vitale depressies. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 121: 564–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Schilgen B, Tölle R (1980) Partial sleep deprivation as therapy for depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37: 267–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sidorowicz W (1976) Sleep deprivation in treatment of depression. Psychiatr Pol 10: 503–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Simons W, Dierick M (2005) Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry. World J Biol Psychiatry 6: 6–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Simpson KH, Halsall PJ, Carr CME, Stewart KG (1988) Propofol reduces seizure duration in patients having anaesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy. Br J Anaesth 61: 343–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Skwerer RG, Jacobsen FM, Duncan CC et al. (1988) Neurobiology of seasonal affective disorder and phototherapy. J Biol Rhythms 3: 135–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Small JG, Millstein V (1990) Lithium interactions: lithium and electroconvulsive therapy. J Clin Psychopharmacol 10: 346–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tauscher J, Neumeister A, Fischer P et al. (1997) Die Elektrokonvulsionstherapie in der klinischen Praxis. Nervenarzt 68: 410–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Teicher MH, Glod CA (1990) Seasonal affective disorder: rapid resolution by low-dose alprazolam. Psychopharmacol Bull 26: 197–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Terman M, Terman JS, Quitkin FM et al. (1989) Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder. A review of efficacy. Neuropsychopharmacol 2: 1–22Google Scholar
  132. Tuunainen A, Kripke DF, Endo T (2004) Light therapy for non-seasonal depression. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 2. Art No. CD004050Google Scholar
  133. Vogel GW, Traub AC, Ben-Horin P et al. (1968) REM deprivation II. The effects on depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 18: 301–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Vogel GW, Vogel F, McAbee RS, Thurmond AJ (1980) Improvement of depresson by REM sleep deprivation: New findings and a theory. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37: 247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wasik A, Puchalka G (1978) Analysis of sleep deprivation as a treatment method in depressive states. Psychiatr Pol 12: 463–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wehr TA (1990) Effects of wakefulness and sleep on depression and mania. In: Montplaisier J, Godbout R (eds) Sleep and biological rhythms, basic mechanisms and applications to psychiatry. Oxford University Press, New York Oxford, pp 42–86Google Scholar
  137. Wehr TA, Wirz-Justice A (1981) Internal coincidence model for sleep deprivation and depression. In: Koella WP (ed) Sleep 1980. Karger, Basel, pp 26–33Google Scholar
  138. Wehr TA, Wirz-Justice A, Goodwin FK et al. (1979) Phase advance of the circadian sleep-wake cycle as an antidepressant. Science 206: 710–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wehr TA, Skwerer RM, Jacobsen FM et al. (1987) Eye-versus skin-phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 144: 753–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wehr TA, Rosenthal NE, Sack DA (1988) Environmental and behavioral influences on affective illness. Acta Psychiatr Scand 77(Suppl 341): 44–52Google Scholar
  141. Weiner RD (1980) ECT and seizure threshold: Effects of stimulus wave form and electrode placement. Biol Psychiatry 15: 225–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Wiegand M, Berger M, Zulley J et al. (1987) The influence of daytime naps on the therapeutic effect of sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry 22: 386–389Google Scholar
  143. Wiegand MH (1995) Schlaf, Schlafentzug und Depression. Experimentelle Studien zum therapeutischen Schlafentzug. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokioGoogle Scholar
  144. Winkler D, Praschak-Rieder N, Willeit M et al. (2002) Saisonal abhängige Depression (SAD) in zwei deutschsprachigen Universitätszentren: Bonn, Wien. Klinische und demographische Charakteristika. Nervenarzt 73: 637–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Wirz-Justice A, Benedetti F, Berger M et al (2005) Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders. Psychol Med 35: 939–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wirz-Justice A, Velde P van der, Nil R (1992) Comparison of light treatment with citalopram in winter depression: A longitudinal single case study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 7: 109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Wu JC, Gillin JC, Buchsbaum MS et al. (1992) Effects of sleep deprivation on brain metabolism of depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry 149: 538–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Zabara J (1984) Time course of seizure control to brief, repetitive stimuli (Abstract). Epilepsia 26: 518Google Scholar
  149. Zimanova J, Voijtechowsky M (1974) Sleep deprivation as a potentiation of antidepressive pharmacotherapy? Activ Nerv Sup (Praha) 16: 188–189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kasper
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieMedizinische Universität WienWienÖsterreich

Personalised recommendations