Evaluation of Structural Equation Models Using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach

  • Oliver GötzEmail author
  • Kerstin Liehr-Gobbers
  • Manfred Krafft
Part of the Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics book series (SHCS)


This paper gives a basic comprehension of the partial least squares approach. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop a guide for the evaluation of structural equation models, using the current statistical methods methodological knowledge by specifically considering the Partial-Least-Squares (PLS) approach’s requirements. As an advantage, the PLS method demands significantly fewer requirements compared to that of covariance structure analyses, but nevertheless delivers consistent estimation results. This makes PLS a valuable tool for testing theories. Another asset of the PLS approach is its ability to deal with formative as well as reflective indicators, even within one structural equation model. This indicates that the PLS approach is appropriate for explorative analysis of structural equation models, too, thus offering a significant contribution to theory development. However, little knowledge is available regarding the evaluating of PLS structural equation models. To overcome this research gap a broad and detailed guideline for the assessment of reflective and formative measurement models as well as of the structural model had been developed. Moreover, to illustrate the guideline, a detailed application of the evaluation criteria had been conducted to an empirical model explaining repeat purchasing behaviour.


Partial Little Square Structural Equation Model Measurement Model Customer Satisfaction Latent Construct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver Götz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kerstin Liehr-Gobbers
    • 2
  • Manfred Krafft
    • 1
  1. 1.Marketing Centrum MünsterUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Hering Schuppener ConsultingDüsseldorfGermany

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