Modelling Learning Subjects as Relationships

  • Martin Doerr
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3359)


This paper describes a novel intellectual structure for the subject space of material designed for selective autodidactic learning in a large knowledge base. This structure is based on a systematic theory-driven connection of categorical and factual knowledge. It is further based on the idea, that relevant subjects in such a system should be propositions, represented as categorical relationships. Informal inferences between concept hierarchies and categorical relationships are presented. The structure is implemented in a system for training of art conservators in diagnostic knowledge. Multiple systematic ways are implemented to give the user access and overview over large amounts of such subject propositions, that try to overcome the typical mismatch between a user-formulated request and the terms understood by the system, and the general disorientation of users in larger electronic media. The system is right now being presented to users with a first small population of cases.


Semantic Network Factual Knowledge Individual Concept Categorical Knowledge Knowledge Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata, Version 6.4, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Inc. (IEEE), IEEE P1484.12.1/D6.4, New York, March 4 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Mylopoylos, J., Borgida, A., Jarke, M., Koubarakis, M.: Telos: Representing Knowledge about Information Systems. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 8(4) (1990)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Analyti, A., Spyratos, N., Constantopoulos, P., Doerr, M.: Inheritance under Participation Constraints and Disjointness. In: Proceedings of the 8th European-Japanese Conference on Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, Tampere, May 1998, pp. 269–287 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guizzardi, G., Herre, H., Wagner, G.: On the General Ontological Foundations of Conceptual Modeling. In: Spaccapietra, S., March, S.T., Kambayashi, Y. (eds.) ER 2002. LNCS, vol. 2503, p. 65. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Analyti, A., Spyratos, N., Constantopoulos, P.: Deriving and Retrieving Contextual Categorical Information through Instance Inheritance. Fundamenta Informaticae 33, 1–37 (1998)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Doerr, M., Plexousakis, D., Bekiari, C.: A Metamodel for Part-Whole Relationships for Reasoning on Missing Parts and Reconstruction. In: Kunii, H.S., Jajodia, S., Solvberg, A. (eds.) 20th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Conceptual Modeling, ER 2001, pp. 412–425. Springer, Berlin (2001) ISBN 3- 540-42866-6Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lakoff, G.: Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1987)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doerr, M.: Reference Information Acquisition and Coordination. In: ASIS 1997 –Digital Collections: Implications for Users, Funders, Developers and Maintainers, Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Sciences, Washington, November 1- 6, vol. 34, pp. 295–312. Information Today Inc., Medford (1997) ISBN 1-57387-048-XGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Streitz, N.A., Haake, J.M., Hannemann, J., Lemke, A.C., Schuler, W., Schütt, H.A., Thüring, M.: SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Conference on Hypertext (Hypertext 1989), pp. 343–364 (1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Streitz, N.A., Haake, J.M., Hannemann, J., Lemke, A.C., Schuler, W., Schütt, H.A., Thüring, M.: SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Hypertext (ECHT 1989), Milan, pp. 112–264 (1992)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hayes, P. (ed.): RDF Semantics - World Wide Web Consortium Proposed Recommendation, December 15 (2003),
  13. 13.
    Crofts, N., Doerr, M., Gill, T., Stiff, M. (eds.): Definition of the CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model (version 3.2) (September 2001), (This document is the source for ISO/CD 21127)
  14. 14.
    Karvounarakis, G., Christophides, V., Plexousakis, D., Alexaki, S.: Querying RDF Descriptions for Community Web Portals. In: Proc. of the 17 France National Conf. on Databases BDA. Agadir, Maroc., October 29 - November 2 (2001),
  15. 15.
    Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL). Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM®), Version 1.3 Working Draft 1 (2003),
  16. 16.
    Baker, T.: A Grammar of Dublin Core. D-Lib. Magazine 6(10) (2000)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Le Boeuf, P.: FRBR and further. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 32(4), 15–52 (2001) ISSN 0163-9374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Welty, C., Jenkins, J.: Formal Ontology for Subject. Knowledge and Data Engineering 31(2), 155–182 (1999)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith, T.R., Ancona, D., Buchel, O., Freeston, M., Heller, W., Nottrott, R., Tierney, T., Ushakou, A.: The ADEPT Concept-Based Digital Learning Environment. In: Koch, T., Sølvberg, I.T. (eds.) ECDL 2003. LNCS, vol. 2769, pp. 300–312. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hazewinkel, M.: Enriched Thesauri and their Uses in Information Retrieval and Storage. In: First DELOS Workshop, An Overview on Projects and Research Activities in Digital Library Related Fields, ERCIM Workshop Proceedings Sophia Antipolis, March 4-6, No. (97-W001) (1996)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Constantopoulos, P., Doerr, M.: The semantic index system: A brief presentation. Heraklion - Crete, Greece: FORTH, Institute of Computer Science, Information Systems and Software Technology Group - Working Paper #6 (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Doerr
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceFoundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, Science and Technology Park of Crete, Vassilika VoutonHeraklion, CreteGreece

Personalised recommendations