Zero Is Not a Four Letter Word: Studies in the Evolution of Language

  • Chris Stephens
  • Miguel Nicolau
  • Conor Ryan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3447)


We examine a model genetic system that has features of both genetic programming and genetic regulatory networks, to show how various forms of degeneracy in the genotype-phenotype map can induce complex and subtle behaviour in the dynamics that lead to enhanced evolutionary robustness and can be fruitfully described in terms of an elementary algorithmic “language”.


Genetic Regulatory Network Optimal Individual Codon Frequency Genetic Programming System Mutational Damage 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Stephens
    • 1
  • Miguel Nicolau
    • 2
  • Conor Ryan
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencias NuclearesUniversidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies 
  2. 2.Department Of Computer Science And Information SystemsUniversity of LimerickIreland

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