Analysis of Handover Frequencies for Predictive, Reactive and Proxy Schemes and Their Implications on IPv6 and Multicast Mobility

  • Thomas C. Schmidt
  • Matthias Wählisch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3421)


Handovers in mobile packet networks commonly produce packet loss, delay and jitter, thereby significantly degrading network performance. Mobile IPv6 handover performance is strongly topology dependent and results in inferior service quality in wide area scenarios. To approach seamless mobility in IPv6 networks predicitive, reactive and proxy schemes have been proposed for improvement. In this article we analyse and compare handover frequencies for the corresponding protocols, as they are an immediate measure on performance quality. Using analytical methods as well as stochastic simulations of walking users within a cell geometry, we calculate the expected number of handovers as functions of mobility and proxy ratios, as well as the mean correctness of predictions. In detail we treat the more delicate case of these rates in mobile multicast communication. It is obtained that hierarchical proxy environments – foremost in regions of high mobility – can significantly reduce the processing of inter–network changes, reliability of handover predictions is found on average at about 50 %.


Mobile Node Home Agent Mobile IPv6 Mobility Anchor Point Handover Delay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Johnson, D.B., Perkins, C., Arkko, J.: Mobility Support in IPv6. RFC 3775, IETF (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Romdhani, I., Kellil, M., Lach, H.Y., Bouabdallah, A., Bettahar, H.: IP Mobile Multicast: Challenges and Solutions. IEEE Comm. Surv. & Tutor. 6, 18–41 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmidt, T.C., Wählisch, M., Cycon, H.L., Palkow, M.: Global serverless videoconferencing over IP. Future Generation Computer Systems 19, 219–227 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cycon, H.L., Palkow, M., Schmidt, T.C., Wählisch, M., Marpe, D.: A fast wavelet-based video codec and its application in an IP version 6-ready serverless videoconferencing system. International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing 2, 165–171 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Soliman, H., Castelluccia, C., Malki, K., Bellier, L.: Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 mobility management (HMIPv6). Internet Draft – work in progress 2002, IETF (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schmidt, T.C., Wählisch, M.: Seamless Multicast Handover in a Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Environment (M-HMIPv6). Internet Draft – work in progress 2002, individual (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koodli, R.: Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6. Internet Draft – work in progress 2002, IETF (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suh, K., Kwon, D.H., Suh, Y.J., Park, Y.: Fast Multicast Protocol for Mobile IPv6 in the fast handovers environments. Internet Draft – work in progress (expired) 2000, IETF (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Song, L., Kotz, D., Jain, R., He, X.: Evaluating location predictors with extensive Wi-Fi mobility data. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Joint Conference of the IEEE Comp. and Comm. Societies (INFOCOM), vol. 2, pp. 1414–1424 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fang, Y., Chlamtac, I.: Analytical Generalized Results for Handoff Probability in Wireless Networks. IEEE Transactions on Communications 50, 396–399 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bettstetter, C.: Mobility Modeling in Wireless Networks: Categorization, Smooth Movement and Border Effects. ACM Mobile Comp. and Comm. Rev. 5, 55–67 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmidt, T.C., Wählisch, M.: Topologically Robust Handover Performance for Mobile Multicast Flows. In: Lorenz, P. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Netwoking (ICN 2004), vol. 1, pp. 350–355. University of Haute Alsace, Colmar (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Schmidt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matthias Wählisch
    • 2
  1. 1.FB Elektrotechnik und InformatikHAW HamburgHamburg
  2. 2.HochschulrechenzentrumFHTW BerlinBerlin

Personalised recommendations