Properties, Principles, and Parameters of the Gecko Adhesive System

  • Kellar Autumn

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alibardi L (2003) Ultrastructural autoradiographic and immunocytochemical analysis of setae formation and keratinization in the digital pads of the gecko Hemidactylus turcicus (Gekkonidae, Reptilia). Tissue Cell 35:288–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altevogt R (1954) Probleme eines Fußes. Kosmos 50:428–430.Google Scholar
  3. Aristotle (350 B.C.E., 1918) Historia animalium translated by Thompson, D¢A.W. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Arzt E, Enders S, Gorb S (2002) Towards a micromechanical understanding of biological surface devices. Z Metallkd 93:345–351.Google Scholar
  5. Arzt E, Gorb S, Spolenak R (2003) From micro to nano contacts in biological attachment devices. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:10603–10606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Autumn K, Hansen W (2005) Ultrahydrophobicity indicates a nonadhesive default state in gecko setae. J Comp Physiol A Sensory Neural Behav Physiol (in press).Google Scholar
  7. Autumn K, Peattie A (2002) Mechanisms of adhesion in geckos. Int Comp Bio 42:1081–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Autumn K, Liang YA, Hsieh ST, Zesch W, Chan W–P, Kenny WT, Fearing R, Full RJ (2000) Adhesive force of a single gecko foot-hair. Nature 405:681–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Autumn K, Ryan MJ, Wake DB (2002a) Integrating historical and mechanistic biology enhances the study of adaptation. Quart Rev Biol 77:383–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Autumn K, Sitti M, Peattie A, Hansen W, Sponberg S, Liang YA, Kenny T, Fearing R, Israelachvili J, Full RJ (2002b) Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12252–12256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Autumn K, Buehler M, Cutkosky M, Fearing R, Full RJ, Goldman D, Groff R, Provancher W, Rizzi AA, Saranli U et al (2005a) Robotics in scansorial environments. Proc SPIE 5804:291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Autumn K, Hsieh ST, Dudek DM, Chen J, Chitaphan C, Full RJ (2006) Dynamics of geckos running vertically. J Exp Biol 209:260–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baier RE, Shafrin EG, Zisman WA (1968) Adhesion: mechanisms that assist or impede it. Science 162:1360–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barthlott W, Neinhuis C (1997) Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces. Planta (Heidelberg) 202:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauer AM (1998) Morphology of the adhesive tail tips of carphodactyline geckos (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae). J Morphol 235:41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bauer AM, Russell AP, Powell GL (1996) The evolution of locomotor morphology in Rhoptropus (Squamata: Gekkonidae): functional and phylogenetic considerations. Afr J Herpetol 45:8–30.Google Scholar
  17. Baum C, Meyer W, Stelzer R, Fleischer L-G, Siebers D (2002) Average nanorough skin surface of the pilot whale (Globicephala mela, Delphinidae): considerations on the self-cleaning abilities based on nanoroughness. Marine Biol 140:653–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bellairs A (1970) The life of reptiles. Universe Books, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Bereiter-Hahn J, Matoltsy AG, Richards KS (1984) Biology of the integument 2: vertebrates. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  20. Bhushan B (2002) Introduction to tribology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Biewener AA, Full RJ (1992) Force platform and kinematic analysis biomechanics: structures and systems a practical approach. IRL at Oxford Univ Press, New York, pp 45–73.Google Scholar
  22. Blackwall J (1845) On the means by which walk various animals on the vertical surface of polished bodies. Ann Nat Hist XV:115.Google Scholar
  23. Bonser RHC (2000) The Young’s modulus of ostrich claw keratin. J Mat Sci Lett 19:1039–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonser RHC, Purslow PP (1995) The Young’s modulus of feather keratin. J Exp Biol 198:1029–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brainerd EL (1994) Adhesion force of ants on smooth surfaces. Am Zool 34:128A.Google Scholar
  26. Braun M (1878) Zur Bedeutung der Cuticularborsten auf den Haftlappen der Geckotiden. Arb Zool Zoot Inst Würzburg 4:231–237.Google Scholar
  27. Braun M (1879) Über die Haftorgane an der Unterseite der Zehen bei Anolius. Arb Zool Zoot Inst Würzburg 5:31–36.Google Scholar
  28. Campolo D, Jones SD, Fearing RS (2003) Fabrication of gecko foot-hair like nano structures and adhesion to random rough surfaces. IEEE Nano 12–14 Aug 2003, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  29. Cartier O (1872a) Studien über den feineren Bau der Haut bei den Reptilien. I. Abt. Epidermis der Geckotiden. Arb Zool Inst Würzburg 1:83–96.Google Scholar
  30. Cartier O (1872b) Studien über den feineren Bau der Epidermis bei den Geckotiden. Verh Würzburger Phys Med Ges 1:239–258.Google Scholar
  31. Cartier O (1874) Studien über den feineren Bau der Epidermis bei den Reptilien. II. Abtheilung. Über die Wachsthumserscheinungen der Oberhaut von Schlangen und Eidechsen bei der Häutung. Arb Zool Zoot Inst Würzburg 1:239–258.Google Scholar
  32. Chen JJ, Peattie AM, Autumn K, Full RJ (2006) Differential leg function in sprawled-posture quadrupedal trotters. J Exp Biol 209:249–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chui BW, Kenny TW, Mamin HJ, Terris BD, Rugar D (1998) Independent detection of vertical and lateral forces with a sidewall-implanted dual-axis piezoresistive cantilever. Appl Phys Lett 72:1388–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Creton C, Leibler L (1996) How does tack depend on contact time and contact pressure? J Polymer Sci B Polymer Phys 34:545–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dahlquist CA (1969) Pressure-sensitive adhesives. In: Patrick RL (ed) Treatise on adhesion and adhesives, vol 2. Dekker, New York, pp 219–260.Google Scholar
  36. Decuzzi P, Srolovitz DJ (2004) Scaling laws for opening partially adhered contacts in MEMS. J Microelectromech Syst 13:377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dellit W-D (1934) Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Geckozehe. Jena Z Naturw 68:613–656.Google Scholar
  38. Dewitz H (1882) Wie ist es den Stubenfliegen und vielen anderen Insecten möglich, an senkrechten Glaswänden emporzulaufen? Sitz Ges Naturf Freunde, pp 5–7.Google Scholar
  39. Edwards JS, Tarkanian M (1970) The adhesive pads of heteroptera: a re-examination. Proc R Entomol Soc Lond 45:1–5.Google Scholar
  40. Emerson SB, Diehl D (1980) Toe pad morphology and mechanisms of sticking in frogs. Biol J Linnaean Soc 13:199–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fakley M (2001) Smart adhesives. Chem Ind 691–695.Google Scholar
  42. Fraser RDB, Parry DAD (1996) The molecular structure of reptilian keratin. Int J Biol Macromol 19:207–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gadow H (1901) The Cambridge natural history, vol 8. Amphibia and Reptiles. McMillan, London.Google Scholar
  44. Gao H, Yao H (2004) Shape insensitive optimal adhesion of nanoscale fibrillar structures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:7851–7856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gao HJ, Wang X, Yao HM, Gorb S, Arzt E (2005) Mechanics of hierarchical adhesion structures of geckos. Mech Mater 37:275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gay C (2002) Stickiness -some fundamentals of adhesion. Int Comp Bio 42:1123–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gay C, Leibler L (1999) Theory of tackiness. Phys Rev Lett 82:936–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Geim AK, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Novoselov KS, Zhukov AA (2003) Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair. Nature Mat 2:461–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Geisler B, Dittmore A, Gallery B, Stratton T, Fearing R, Autumn K (2005) Deformation of isolated gecko setal arrays: bending or buckling? 2. Kinetics. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, San Diego.Google Scholar
  50. Gennaro JGJ (1969) The gecko grip. Natural Hist 78:36–43.Google Scholar
  51. Gere JM, Timoshenko SP (1984) Mechanics of materials. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Independence, KY.Google Scholar
  52. Ghandi M (2002) The ughly buglies. Swagat. Media Transasia (India), Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
  53. Gillett JD, Wigglesworth VB (1932) The climbing organ of an insect, Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). Proc Rsoc Lond Ser B 111:364–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Glassmaker NJ, Jagota A, Hui CY, Kim J (2004) Design of biomimetic fibrillar interfaces: 1. Making contact. J R Soc Lond Interface 1:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gorb EV, Gorb SN (2002) Attachment ability of the beetle Chrysolina fastuosa on various plant surfaces. Entomol Exp Appl 105:13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Green DM (1981) Adhesion and the toe-pads of treefrogs. Copeia 4:790–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Greenwood JA (1992) Problems with rough surfaces. In: Singer IL, Pollock HM (eds) Fundamentals of friction: macroscopic and microscopic processes. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 57–76.Google Scholar
  58. Haase A (1900) Untersuchungen über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Haftlappen bei den Geckotiden. Arch Naturgesch 66:321–345.Google Scholar
  59. Han D, Zhou K, Bauer AM (2004) Phylogenetic relationships among gekkotan lizards inferred from Cmos nuclear DNA sequences and a new classification of the Gekkota. Biol J Linnaean Soc 83:353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hanna G, Barnes WJP (1991) Adhesion and detatchment of the toe pads of tree frogs. J Exp Biol 155:103–125.Google Scholar
  61. Hansen W, Autumn K (2005) Evidence for self-cleaning in gecko setae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:385–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harvey PH, Pagel MD (1991) The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  63. Hecht MK (1952) Natural selection in the lizard genus Aristelliger. Evolution 6:112–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hepworth J (1854) On the structure of the foot of the fly. Quart J Microscop Sci 2:158–163.Google Scholar
  65. Hiller U (1968) Untersuchungen zum Feinbau und zur Funktion der Haftborsten von Reptilien. Z Morph Tiere 62:307–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hiller U (1969) Correlation between corona-discharge of polyethylene-films and the adhering power of Tarentola m. mauritanica (Rept.). Forma Functio 1:350–352.Google Scholar
  67. Hiller U (1971) Form und Funktion der Hautsinnesorgane bei Gekkoniden. Forma Functio 4:240–253.Google Scholar
  68. Hiller U (1975) Comparative studies on the functional morphology of two gekkonid lizards. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 73:278–282.Google Scholar
  69. Holloway P (1969) The effects of superficial wax on leaf wettability. Ann Appl Biol 63:145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hora SL (1923) The adhesive apparatus on the toes of certain geckos and tree frogs. J Proc Asiat Soc Beng 9:137–145.Google Scholar
  71. Huber G, Gorb S, Spolenak R, Arzt E (2005a) Resolving the nanoscale adjesion of individual gecko spatulae by atomic force microscopy. Biol Lett 1:2–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Huber G, Mantz H, Spolenak R, Mecke K, Jacobs K, Gorb S, Arzt E (2005b) Evidence for capillarity contributions to gecko adhesion from single spatula nanomechanical measurements. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 102:16293–16296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hui CY, Glassmaker NJ, Tang T, Jagota A (2004) Design of biomimetic fibrillar interfaces. 2. Mechanics of enhanced adhesion. J R Soc Lond Interface 1:12–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Irschick DJ, Austin CC, Petren K, Fisher R, Losos JB, Ellers O (1996) A comparative analysis of clinging ability among pad-bearing lizards. Biol J Linnaean Soc 59:21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Irving RLG (1955) A history of British mountaineering. Batsford, London.Google Scholar
  76. Israelachvili J (1992) Intermolecular and surface forces. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Jagota A, Bennison S (2002) Mechanics of adhesion through a fibrillar microstructure. Int Comp Bio 42:1140–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jeffree C (1986) The cuticle, epicuticular waxes and trichomes of plants, with reference to their structure, functions and evolution. In: Juniper B, Southwood RS (eds) Insects and the plant surface. Arnold Publ, London, pp 23–64.Google Scholar
  79. Johnson KL (1985) Contact mechanics. Univ Cambridge Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  80. Johnson KL, Kendall K, Roberts AD (1973) Surface energy and the contact of elastic solids. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 324:310–313.Google Scholar
  81. Kendall K (1975) Thin-film peeling -the elastic term. J Phys D Appl Phys 8:1449–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kinloch AJ (1987) Adhesion and adhesives: science and technology. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Lee YI, Kogan M, Larsen JRJ (1986) Attachment of the potato leafhopper to soybean plant surfaces as affected by morphology of the pretarsus. Entomol Exp Appl 42:101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lees AD, Hardie J (1988) The organs of adhesion in the aphid Megoura viciae. J Exp Biol 136:209–228.Google Scholar
  85. Little P (1979) Particle capture by natural surfaces. Agricult Aviat 20:129–144.Google Scholar
  86. Luan B, Robbins MO (2005) The breakdown of continuum models for mechanical contacts. Nature 435:929–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maderson PFA (1964) Keratinized epidermal derivatives as an aid to climbing in gekkonid lizards. Nature 203:780–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mahendra BC (1941) Contributions to the bionomics, anatomy, reproduction and development of the Indian house gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis Ruppell, part II. The problem of locomotion. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sec B 13:288–306.Google Scholar
  89. McMahon TA, Bonner JT (1983) On size and life. Scientific American Library, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Menciassi A, Dario P (2003) Bio-inspired solutions for locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract: background and perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 361:2287–2298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Northen MT, Turner KL (2005) A batch of fabricated dry adhesive. Nanotechnology 16:1159–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pain S (2000) Sticking power. New Scientist 168:62–67.Google Scholar
  93. Peattie AM, Fearing RS, Full RJ (2004) Using a simple beam model to predict morphological variation in adhesive gecko hairs. Society for Integrative and comparative Biology, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  94. Peressadko A, Gorb SN (2004) When less is more: experimental evidence for tenacity enhancement by division of contact area. J Adhesion 80:247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Persson BNJ (2003) On the mechanism of adhesion in biological systems. J Chem Phys 118:7614–7621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Persson BNJ, Gorb S (2003) The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion of elastic plates with application to biological systems. J Chem Phys 119:11437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peterson JA, Williams EE (1981) A case study in retrograde evolution: the onca lineage in anoline lizards. II. Subdigital fine structure. Bull Museum Comp Zool 149:215–268.Google Scholar
  98. Pianka ER, Sweet SS (2005) Integrative biology of sticky feet in geckos. BioEssays 6:647–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pocius AV (2002) Adhesion and adhesives technology: an introduction, 2nd edn. Hanser, Munich.Google Scholar
  100. Ringlein J, Robbins MO (2004) Understanding and illustrating the atomic origins of friction. Am J Phys 72:884–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roll B (1995) Epidermal fine structure of the toe tips of Sphaerodactylus cinereus. J Zool 235:289–300.Google Scholar
  102. Rosenberg HI, Rose R (1999) Volar adhesive pads of the feathertail glider, Acrobates pygmaeus (Marsupialia; Acrobatidae). Can J Zool 77:233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ruibal R, Ernst V (1965) The structure of the digital setae of lizards. J Morphol 117:271–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Russell AP (1975) A contribution to the functional morphology of the foot of the tokay, Gekko gecko (Reptilia, Gekkonidae). J Zool Lond 176:437–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Russell AP (1976) Some comments concerning the interrelationships amongst gekkonine geckos. In: Bellairs AA, Cox CB (eds) Morphology and biology of reptiles. Academic Press, London, pp 217–244.Google Scholar
  106. Russell AP (1979) Parallelism and integrated design in the foot structure of gekkonine and diplodactyline geckos. Copeia 1979:1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Russell AP (1981) Descriptive and functional anatomy of the digital vascular system of the tokay, Gekko gecko. J Morphol 169:293–323.Google Scholar
  108. Russell AP (1986) The morphological basis of weight-bearing in the scansors of the tokay gecko (Reptilia: Sauria). Can J Zool 64:948–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Russell AP (2002) Integrative functional morphology of the gekkotan adhesive system (Reptilia: Gekkota). Integrative Comp Biol 42:1154–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Russell AP, Bauer AM (1988) Paraphalangeal of gekkonid lizards: a comparative survey. J Morphol 197:221–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Russell AP, Bauer AM (1990a) Oedura and Afroedura (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) revisited: similarities of digital design, and constraints on the development of multiscansorial subdigital pads? Memoirs Queensland Museum 29:473–486.Google Scholar
  112. Russell AP, Bauer AM (1990b) Digit I in pad-bearing gekkonine geckos: alternate designs and the potential constraints of phalangeal number. Memoirs Queensland Museum 29:453–472.Google Scholar
  113. Russell AP, Rosenberg HI (1981) Self-grooming in Diplodactylus spinigerus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) with a brief review of such behaviour in reptiles. Can J Zool 59:564–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Scherge M, Gorb SN (2001) Biological micro- and nanotribology: nature’s solutions. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  115. Schleich HH, Kästle W (1986) Ultrastrukturen an Gecko-Zehen (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 7:141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schmidt HR (1904) Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Geckopfote. Jena Z Naturw 39:551.Google Scholar
  117. Simmermacher G (1884) Haftapparate bei Wirbeltieren. Zool Garten 25:289–301.Google Scholar
  118. Sitti M, Fearing RS (2003) Synthetic gecko foot-hair micro/nano structures as dry adhesives. J Adhesion Sci Technol 17:1055–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Slocum AH, Weber AC (2003) Precision passive mechanical alignment of wafers. J Microelectromech Syst 12:826–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Spolenak R, Gorb S, Gao HJ, Arzt E (2004) Effects of contact shape on the scaling of biological attachments. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 461:305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Spolenak R, Gorb S, Arzt E (2005) Adhesion design maps for bio-inspired attachment systems. Acta Biomaterialia 1, 5–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stork NE (1980) Experimental analysis of adhesion of Chrysolina polita (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) on a variety of surfaces. J Exp Biol 88:91–107.Google Scholar
  123. Stork NE (1983) A comparison of the adhesive setae on the feet of lizards and arthropods. J Nat Hist 17:829–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sun W, Neuzil P, Kustandi TS, Oh S, Samper VD (2005) The nature of the gecko lizard adhesive force. Biophys J 89:L14–L17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Urbakh M, Klafter J, Gourdon D, Israelachvili J (2004) The nonlinear nature of friction. Nature 430:525–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vanhooydonck B, Andronescu A, Herrel A, Irschick DJ (2005) Effects of substrate structure on speed and acceleration capacity in climbing geckos. Biol J Linnean Soc 85:385–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vinson J, Vinson J-M (1969) The saurian fauna of the Mascarene islands. Bull Maurit Inst 6:203–320.Google Scholar
  128. Vitt LJ, Zani PA (1997) Ecology of the nocturnal lizard Thecadactylus rapicauda (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in the Amazon region. Herpetologica 53:165–179.Google Scholar
  129. Von Wittich (1854) Der Mechanismus der Haftzehen von Hyla arborea. Arch Anat Physiol Med 170–183.Google Scholar
  130. Wagler J (1830) Natürliches System der Amphibien. Cotta’sche Buchhandlung, Munich.Google Scholar
  131. Wainwright SA, Biggs WD, Currey JD, Gosline JM (1982) Mechanical design in organisms. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  132. Weitlaner F (1902) Eine Untersuchung über den Haftfuß des Gecko. Verh Zool Bot Ges Wien 52:328–332.Google Scholar
  133. Williams EE, Peterson JA (1982) Convergent and alternative designs in the digital adhesive pads of scincid lizards. Science 215:1509–1511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kellar Autumn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyLewis & Clark CollegePortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations