The class of visibly pushdown languages has been recently defined as a subclass of context-free languages with desirable closure properties and tractable decision problems. We study visibly pushdown games, which are games played on visibly pushdown systems where the winning condition is given by a visibly pushdown language. We establish that, unlike pushdown games with pushdown winning conditions, visibly pushdown games are decidable and are 2Exptime-complete. We also show that pushdown games against Ltl specifications and Caret specifications are 3Exptime-complete. Finally, we establish the topological complexity of visibly pushdown languages by showing that they are a subclass of Boolean combinations of Σ 3 sets. This leads to an alternative proof that visibly pushdown automata are not determinizable and also shows that visibly pushdown games are determined.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christof Löding
    • 1
  • P. Madhusudan
    • 2
  • Olivier Serre
    • 1
  1. 1.LIAFAUniversité Paris VIIFrance
  2. 2.University of Pennsylvania 

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