Advertisement

A Defeasible Logic Reasoner for the Semantic Web

  • Nick Bassiliades
  • Grigoris Antoniou
  • Ioannis Vlahavas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3323)

Abstract

Defeasible reasoning is a rule-based approach for efficient reasoning with incomplete and inconsistent information. Such reasoning is, among others, useful for ontology integration, where conflicting information arises naturally; and for the modeling of business rules and policies, where rules with exceptions are often used. This paper describes these scenarios in more detail, and reports on the implementation of a system for defeasible reasoning on the Web. The system is called DR-DEVICE and is capable of reasoning about RDF metadata over multiple Web sources using defeasible logic rules. The system is implemented on top of CLIPS production rule system and builds upon R-DEVICE, an earlier deductive rule system over RDF metadata that also supports derived attribute and aggregate attribute rules. Rules can be expressed either in a native CLIPS-like language, or in an extension of the OO-RuleML syntax. The operational semantics of defeasible logic are implemented through compilation into the generic rule language of R-DEVICE. The paper also briefly presents a semantic web broker example for apartment renting.

Keywords

Description Logic Business Rule Rule System Deductive Rule Defeasible Reasoning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alexaki, S., Christophides, V., Karvounarakis, G., Plexousakis, D., Tolle, K.: The ICSFORTH RDFSuite: Managing Voluminous RDF Description Bases. In: Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop on the Semantic Web, Hong-Kong (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Antoniou, G., Arief, M.: Executable Declarative Business rules and their use in Electronic Commerce. In: Proc. ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antoniou, G.: Nonmonotonic Rule Systems on Top of Ontology Layers. In: Horrocks, I., Hendler, J. (eds.) ISWC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2342, pp. 394–398. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antoniou, G., Bikakis, A.: A System for Nonmonotonic Rules on the Web (2004) (submitted)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Antoniou, G., Billington, D., Maher, M.J.: On the analysis of regulations using defeasible rules. In: Proc. 32nd Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Antoniou, G., Billington, D., Governatori, G., Maher, M.J.: Representation results for defeasible logic. ACM Trans. on Computational Logic 2(2), 255–287 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Antoniou, G., Billington, D., Governatori, G., Maher, M.J.: A Flexible Framework for Defeasible Logics. In: Proc. AAAI/IAAI 2000, pp. 405–410. AAAI/MIT Press (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Antoniou, G., van Harmelen, F.: A Semantic Web Primer. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Antoniou, G., Maher, M.J., Billington, D.: Defeasible Logic versus Logic Programming without Negation as Failure. Journal of Logic Programming 41(1), 45–57 (2000)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ashri, R., Payne, T., Marvin, D., Surridge, M., Taylor, S.: Towards a Semantic Web Security Infrastructure. In: Proc. of Semantic Web Services. 2004 Spring Symposium Series. Stanford University, California (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bassiliades, N., Antoniou, G., Vlahavas, I.: DR-DEVICE: A Defeasible Logic System for the Semantic Web. In: Ohlbach, H.J., Schaffert, S. (eds.) PPSWR 2004. LNCS, vol. 3208, pp. 134–148. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bassiliades, N., Vlahavas, I.: Capturing RDF Descriptive Semantics in an Object Oriented Knowledge Base System. In: Proc. 12th Int. WWW Conf. (WWW 2003), Budapest (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bassiliades, N., Vlahavas, I.: R-DEVICE: A Deductive RDF Rule Language. In: Antoniou, G., Boley, H. (eds.) RuleML 2004. LNCS, vol. 3323, pp. 65–80. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bassiliades, N., Vlahavas, I., Sampson, D.: Using Logic for Querying XML Data. In: Web-Powered Databases, ch. 1, pp. 1–35. Idea-Group Publishing, USA (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bassiliades, N., Vlahavas, I., Elmagarmid, A.K.: E-DEVICE: An extensible active knowledge base system with multiple rule type support. IEEE TKDE 12(5), 824–844 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O.: The Semantic Web. Scientific American 284(5), 34–43 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boley, H., Tabet, S.: The Rule Markup Initiative, http://www.ruleml.org/
  18. 18.
    Broekstra, J., Kampman, A., van Harmelen, F.: Sesame: An Architecture for Storing and Querying RDF Data and Schema Information. In: Fensel, D., Hendler, J.A., Lieberman, H., Wahlster, W. (eds.) Spinning the Semantic Web, pp. 197–222. MIT Press, Cambridge (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    CLIPS Basic Programming Guide (v. 6.21), http://www.ghg.net/clips/CLIPS.html
  20. 20.
    Connolly, D., van Harmelen, F., Horrocks, I., McGuinness, D.L., Patel-Schneider, P.F., Stein, L.A.: DAML+OIL Reference Description (2001), www.w3c.org/TR/daml+oil-reference
  21. 21.
    Covington, M.A., Nute, D., Vellino, A.: Prolog Programming in Depth, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gelder, A., van Ross, K., Schlipf, J.: The well-founded semantics for general logic programs. Journal of the ACM 38, 620–650 (1991)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Governatori, G., Dumas, M., ter Hofstede, A., Oaks, P.: A formal approach to legal negotiation. In: Proc. ICAIL 2001, pp. 168–177 (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grosof, B.N., Poon, T.C.: SweetDeal: representing agent contracts with exceptions using XML rules, ontologies, and process descriptions. In: Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on World Wide Web, pp. 340–349. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grosof, B.N.: Prioritized conflict handing for logic programs. In: Proc. of the 1997 Int. Symposium on Logic Programming, pp. 197–211 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grosof, B.N., Horrocks, I., Volz, R., Decker, S.: Description Logic Programs: Combining Logic Programs with Description Logic. In: Proc. 12th Intl. Conf. on the World Wide Web (WWW 2003), pp. 48–57. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grosof, B.N., Gandhe, M.D., Finin, T.W.: SweetJess: Translating DAMLRuleML to JESS. In: Proc. Int. Workshop on Rule Markup Languages for Business Rules on the Semantic Web, RuleML 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hayes, P.: RDF Semantics, W3C Recommendation (February 2004), www.w3c.org/TR/rdfmt/
  29. 29.
    Levy, A., Rousset, M.-C.: Combining Horn rules and description logics in CARIN. Artificial Intelligence 104(1-2), 165–209 (1998)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li, N., Grosof, B.N., Feigenbaum, J.: Delegation Logic: A Logic-based Approach to Distributed Authorization. ACM Trans. on Information Systems Security 6(1) (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maher, M.J.: A Model-Theoretic Semantics for Defeasible Logic. In: Proc. Workshop on Paraconsistent Computational Logic, pp. 67–80 (2002)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maher, M.J., Rock, A., Antoniou, G., Billington, D., Miller, T.: Efficient Defeasible Reasoning Systems. Int. Journal of Tools with Artificial Intelligence 10(4), 483–501 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marek, V.W., Truszczynski, M.: Nonmonotonic Logics; Context Dependent Reasoning. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McBride, B.: Jena: Implementing the RDF Model and Syntax Specification. In: Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop on the Semantic Web (2001)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nute, D.: Defeasible logic. In: Handbook of logic in artificial intelligence and logic programming. Nonmonotonic reasoning and uncertain reasoning, vol. 3. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1994)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seaborne, A., Reggiori, A.: RDF Query and Rule languages Use Cases and Examples survey, rdfstore.sourceforge.net/2002/06/24/rdf-query/
  37. 37.
    Web Ontology Language (OWL), http://www.w3c.org/2004/OWL/
  38. 38.
    Xalan-Java XSLT processor, http://xml.apache.org/xalan-j/

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick Bassiliades
    • 1
  • Grigoris Antoniou
    • 2
  • Ioannis Vlahavas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Institute of Computer Science, FO.R.T.H.HeraklionGreece

Personalised recommendations