Advertisement

From Objects to Events: GEM, the Geospatial Event Model

  • Michael Worboys
  • Kathleen Hornsby
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3234)

Abstract

This paper discusses the construction of a modeling approach for dynamic geospatial domains based on the concepts of object and event. The paper shows how such a model extends traditional object-based geospatial models. The focus of the research is the introduction of events into the object-based paradigm, and consequent work on the classification of object-event and event-event relationships. The specific geospatial nature of this model is captured in the concept of a geosetting. The paper also introduces an extension of UML diagrams to incorporate events and their relationship to each other, and to objects. The paper briefly considers an example to show the working of some of the modeling constructs, and concludes with a discussion of further research needed on event aggregation and event-based query languages.

Keywords

Object Class Temporal Setting Geographic Information System Spatial Setting Multiple Granularity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Guarino, N.: Formal ontology and information systems. In: Guarino, N. (ed.) Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Proceedings of FOIS 1998, pp. 3–17. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chrisman, N.: Beyond the snapshot: changing the approach to change, error, and process. In: Egenhofer, M.J., Golledge, R.G. (eds.) Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems. Spatial Information Systems, pp. 85–93. Oxford University Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Booch, G., Rumbaugh, J., Jacobson, I.: The Unified Modeling Language User Guide. Addison-Wesley Longman, Amsterdam (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Worboys, M.F.: Event-oriented approaches to geographic phenomena. Accepted for publication in International Journal of Geographic Information Systems (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hobbs, J.: A DAML Ontology of Time (2002), http://www.cs.rochester.edu/~ferguson/daml/daml-timenov2002
  6. 6.
    Pan, F., Hobbs, J.R.: Time in OWL-S. In: Proceedings of AAAI 2004, pp. 29–36 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Worboys, M.F.: Geographic Information Systems: A Computing Perspective. Taylor & Francis, London (1995)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen, J.: Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Communications of the ACM 26(11), 832–843 (1983)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Snodgrass, R. (ed.): The TSQL2 Temporal Query Language. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snodgrass, R.: Developing time-oriented database applications in SQL. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Partsinevelos, P., Stefanidis, A., Agouris, P.: Automated Spatiotemporal Scaling for Video Generalization. In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Thessaloniki, Greece, vol. 1, pp. 177–180 (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Griffiths, T., Fernandes, A., Paton, N., Jeong, S.-H., Djafri, N., Mason, K.T., Huang, B., Worboys, M.: TRIPOD: A Spatio-Historical Object Database System. In: Ladner, R., Shaw, K., Abdelguerfi, L. (eds.) Mining Spatio-Temporal Information Systems, pp. 127–146. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Galton, A.: Fields and objects in space, time, and space-time. Journal of Spatial Cognition and Computation 4(1), 39–68 (2004)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hornsby, K., Egenhofer, M.: Modeling moving objects over multiple granularities, Special issue on Spatial and Temporal Granularity. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence 36, 177–194 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simons, P.M.: Parts. A Study in Ontology. Clarendon, Oxford (1987)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Egenhofer, M.J., Franzosa, R.D.: Point-set topological spatial relations. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5(2), 161–174 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cui, Z., Cohn, A.G., Randell, D.A.: Qualitative and topological relationships in spatial databases. In: Abel, D.J., Ooi, B.-C. (eds.) SSD 1993. LNCS, vol. 692, pp. 296–315. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hornsby, K., Egenhofer, M., Hayes, P.: Modeling cyclic change. In: Chen, P., Embley, D., Kouloumdjian, J., Liddle, S., Roddick, J. (eds.) Advances in Conceptual Modeling, ER 1999 Workshop on Evolution and Change in Data Management, Paris, France, pp. 98–109 (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Egenhofer, M., Frank, A.: Object-Oriented Modeling for GIS. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 4(2), 3–19 (1992)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Worboys, M.F., Hearnshaw, H.M., Maguire, D.J.: Object-oriented data modelling for spatial databases. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 4(4), 369–383 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tomlin, D.: Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modelling. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey (1990)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Al-Taha, K., Barrera, R.: Identities through time. In: Ehlers, M., Steiner, D. (eds.) International Workshop on Requirements for Integrated Geographic Information Systems, New Orleans, LA, pp. 1–12 (1994)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Worboys, M.F.: A Unified Model of Spatial and Temporal Information. Computer Journal 37(1), 26–34 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Claramunt, C., Thériault, M.: Toward semantics for modelling spatio-temporal processes within GIS. In: Kraak, M.J., Molenaar, M. (eds.) 7th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Delft, NL, pp. 47–63 (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Medak, D.: Lifestyles - an algebraic approach to change in identity. In: Böhlen, M.H., Jensen, C.S., Scholl, M.O. (eds.) STDBM 1999. LNCS, vol. 1678, pp. 19–38. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hornsby, K., Egenhofer, M.: Identity-based change: a foundation for spatiotemporal knowledge representation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14(3), 207–224 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Casati, R., Varzi, A.C.: Parts and Places: Structures in Spatial Representation. MIT Press/Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA (1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grenon, P., Smith, B.: SNAP and SPAN: Towards dynamic spatial ontology. Journal of Spatial Cognition and Computation 4(1), 69–103 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bédard, Y.: Visual modeling of spatial databases: towards spatial PVL and UML. Geomatica 53(2), 169–186 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Worboys
    • 1
  • Kathleen Hornsby
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center for Geographic Information and AnalysisUniversity of MaineOronoUSA

Personalised recommendations