Photorealistic Rendering of Large Tissue Deformation for Surgical Simulation
With the increasing use of computer based simulation for training and skills assessment, growing effort is being directed towards enhancing the visual realism of the simulation environment. Image-based modelling and rendering is a promising technique in that it attains photorealistic visual feedback while maintaining interactive response. The purpose of this paper is to extend an existing technique for simulating tissues with extensive deformation. We demonstrate that by the incorporation of multiple virtual cameras, geometric proxy and viewing projection manifolds, interactive tissue-instrument interaction can be achieved while providing photorealistic rendering. Detailed steps involved in the algorithm are introduced and quantitative error analysis is provided to assess the accuracy of the technique in terms of projection error through 3D image warping. Results from phantom and real-laparoscope simulation demonstrate the potential clinical value of the technique.
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