Mobile Note Taking: Investigating the Efficacy of Mobile Text Entry

  • Joanna Lumsden
  • Andrew Gammell
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3160)


When designing interaction techniques for mobile devices we must ensure users are able to safely navigate through their physical environment while interacting with their mobile device. Non-speech audio has proven effective at improving interaction on mobile devices by allowing users to maintain visual focus on environmental navigation while presenting information to them via their audio channel. The research described here builds on this to create an audio-enhanced single-stroke-based text entry facility that demands as little visual resource as possible. An evaluation of the system demonstrated that users were more aware of their errors when dynamically guided by audio-feedback. The study also highlighted the effect of handwriting style and mobility on text entry; designers of handwriting recognizers and of applications involving mobile note taking can use this fundamental knowledge to further develop their systems to better support the mobility of mobile text entry.


Mobile Device Touch Screen Text Entry Wearable Computer Audio Feedback 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Urbaczewski, A., Valacich, J.S., Jessup, L.M.: Mobile Commerce: Opportunities and Challenges. Communications of the ACM 46(12), 30–32 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jarvenpaa, S.L., Lang, K.R., Takeda, Y., Tuunainen, V.K.: Mobile Commerce at Crossroads. Communications of the ACM 46(12), 41–44 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sarker, S., Wells, J.D.: Understanding Mobile Handheld Device Use and Adoption. Communications of the ACM 46(12), 35–40 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brewster, S.A.: Overcoming the Lack of Screen Space on Mobile Computers. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 6(3), 188–205 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barfield, W., Caudell, T.: Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geelhoed, E., Falahee, M., Latham, K.: Safety and Comfort of Eyeglass Displays. In: Thomas, P., Gellersen, H.-W. (eds.) HUC 2000. LNCS, vol. 1927, pp. 236–247. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holland, S., Morse, D.R.: Audio GPS: Spatial Audio Navigation With a Minimal Attention Interface. In: Mobile HCI 2001: Third International Workshop on Human- Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices, Lille, France, pp. 253–259 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brewster, S.A., Lumsden, J., Bell, M., Hall, M., Tasker, S.: Multimodal ’Eyes-Free’ Interaction Techniques for Mobile Devices. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003, Ft Lauderdale, USA, pp. 473–480 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pirhonen, P., Brewster, S.A., Holguin, C.: Gestural and Audio Metaphors as a Means of Control in Mobile Devices. In: ACM-CHI 2002, pp. 291–298. ACM Press Addison-Wesley, Minneapolis, MN (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sawhney, N., Schmandt, C.: Nomadic Radio: Speech and Audio Interaction for Contextual Messaging in Nomadic Environments. ACM Transactions on Computer- Human Interaction 7(3), 353–383 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Nonnecke, B., Riddersma, S., McQueen, C., Meltz, M.: Alphanumeric Entry on Pen-Based Computers. International Journal of Human- Computer Studies (41), 775–792 (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhai, S., Kristensson, P.: Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard, in Human Factors. In: Computing Systems - CHI 2003, pp. 97–104. ACM Press, Ft. Lauderdale (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Zhang, S.: The Immediate Usability of Graffiti, in Graphics Interface 1997, pp. 129–137. Canadian Information Processing Society, Toronto (1997)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldberg, D., Richardson, C.: Touch-Typing With a Stylus. In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - INTERCHI 1993, pp. 80–87. ACM Press, Amsterdam (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Soukoreff, R.W.: Text-Entry for Mobile Computing: Models and Methods, Theory and Practice. Human Computer Interaction 17, 147–198 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Nonnecke, R.B., McQueen, J.C., Riddersma, S., Meltz, M.: A Comparison of Three Methods of Character Entry on Pen-based Computers. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual General Meeting, pp. 330–334. Human Factors Society, Santa Monica (1994)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    LaLomia, M.J.: User Acceptance of Handwritten Recognition Accuracy. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 1994, p. 107. ACM Press, Boston (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frankish, C., Hull, R., Morgan, P.: Recognition Accuracy and User Acceptance of Pen Interfaces. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 1995, Denver, USA, pp. 503–510 (1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Chang, L.: A Performance Comparison of Two Handwriting Recognizers. Interacting With Computers 11, 283–297 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Frankish, C.: Pen-Based Computing. In: Noyes, J.M., Cook, M. (eds.) Interface Technology: The Leading Edge, pp. 59–72. Research Studies Press Ltd, Baldock (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Willey, M.: LibStroke - A Stroke Translation Library, ETLA Technical Services (2002),
  22. 22.
    Wobbrock, J.O.: The Benefits of Physical Edges in Gesture-Making: Empirical Support for and Edge-Based Unistroke Alphabet. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, USA, pp. 942–943 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lumsden, J., Brewster, S.A., Crease, M., Gray, P.D.: Guidelines for Audio- Enhancement of Graphical User Interface Widgets. In: Proceedings of BCS HCI 2002, London (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vuurpijl, L., Schomaker, K.: Coarse Writing-Style Clustering Based on Simple Stroke-Related Features. In: 5th International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition: IAPR, pp. 29–34 (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Soukoreff, R.W.: Phrase Sets for Evaluating Text Entry Techniques. In: Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, USA, pp. 754–755 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hart, S.G., Wickens, C.: Workload assessment and prediction. In: Booher, H.R. (ed.) MANPRINT: an approach to systems integration, pp. 257–296. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Petrie, H., Furner, S., Strothotte, T.: Design Lifecycles and Wearable Computers for Users with Disabilities. In: The First Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices, Glasgow, UK (1998)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Soukeroff, R.W., MacKenzie, I.S.: Metrics for Text Entry Research: An Evaluation of MSD and KSPC, and a New Unified Error Metric. In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2003), pp. 113–120. ACM Press, Ft Lauderdale (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Lumsden
    • 1
  • Andrew Gammell
    • 2
  1. 1.National Research Council of Canada, IIT e-BusinessFrederictonCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of Computer ScienceUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations