Is Dial-a-Ride Bus Reasonable in Large Scale Towns? Evaluation of Usability of Dial-a-Ride Systems by Simulation

  • Kousuke Shinoda
  • Itsuki Noda
  • Masayuki Ohta
  • Yoichiro Kumada
  • Hideyuki Nakashima
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3012)


Dial-a-ride systems are attracting attention as a new style of transportation systems for urban areas. While it has been reported that such systems improve the usability of bus systems when applied in a small town or area, it is not obvious how and under what conditions the systems are effective in comparison to traditional fixed-route bus systems. We conducted two computer simulations of dial-a-ride and fixed-route systems in order to compare the usability and profitability of both systems. Simulation results indicated that: (1) The usability of the dial-a-ride system with a fixed number of buses drops very quickly when the number of requests(demands) increases. (2) When we increase the number of buses proportionally to the number of demand, the usability of the dial-a-ride system is improved more significantly than that of the fixed-route system. (3) When frequency of demands is sufficiently, the dial-a-ride system is a reasonable solution from the both usability and profitability perspectives.


Transportation Research Part Single Vehicle Unit Period Normal Route Route System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Krumke, S.O., de Paepe, W.E., Poensgen, D., Stougie, L.: News from the online traveling repairman. In: Sgall, J., Pultr, A., Kolman, P. (eds.) MFCS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2136, pp. 487–496. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bianco, L., Mingozzi, A., Riccaiardelli, S., Spadoni, M.: Exact and heuristic procedures for the traveling salesman problem with procedence constraints, based on dynamic programming. In: INFOR., vol. 32, pp. 19–31 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    William, A., Bailey, J., Thomas, D., Clark, J.: A simulation analysis of demand and fleet size effects on taxicab service rates. In: Proceedings of the 19th conference on Winter simulation, pp. 838–844. ACM Press, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Savelsbergh, M.W.P., Sol, M.: The general pickup and delivery program. Transportation Science 29, 17–29 (1995)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bodin, L.D., Golden, B.L., Assad, A., Ball, M.O.: Routing and scheduling of vehicles and crews: the state of the art. Computers and Operation Research 10, 63–211 (1983)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ruland, K.S., Rodin, E.Y.: The pickup and delivery problem: faces and branchand- cut algorithm. Computers Math. Applic 33, 1–13 (1997)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li, H., Lim, A.: A metaheuristic for the pickup and delivery problem with time windows. In: IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, vol. 13, pp. 160–167 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Healy, P., Moll, R.: A new extension of local search applied to the dial-a-ride problem. European Journal of Operations Research 83, 83–104 (1995)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cordeau, J.F., Laporte, G.: A tabu search heuristic for the static multi-vehicle dial-a-ride problem. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silesia, Z.C.: Parallel simulated annealing for the delivery problem. In: The 9th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Processing, pp. 219–226 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silesia, Z.C.: Parallel simulated annealing for the set-partitioning problem. In: The 8th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Processing, pp. 343–350 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hauptmeier, D., Krumke, S.O., Rambau, J., Wirth, H.C.: Euler is standing in line dial-a-ride problems with precedence-constraints. Discrete Applied Mathematics 113, 87–107 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feuerstein, E., Stougie, L.: On-line single-server dial-a-ride problems. Theoretical Computer Science 268, 91–105 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Psarfatis, H.N.: Analysis of an o(n2) heuristic for the single vehicle many-to-many euclidean dial-a-ride problem. Transportation Research 17B, 133–145 (1983)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Psarfaits, H.N.: A exact algorithm for the single vehicle many-to-many dial-aride problem with time windows. Transportation Science 17, 315–357 (1983)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Psarfaits, H.N.: A dynamic programming solution to the single vehicle manyto- many immediate request dial-a-ride problem. Transportation Science 14, 135–154 (1980)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grotschel, M., Hauptmeier, D., Krumke, S., Rambau, J.: Simulation studies for the online dial-a-ride-problem (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hauptmeier, D., Krumke, S.O., Rambau, J.: The online dial-a-ride problem under reasonable load. In: Bongiovanni, G., Petreschi, R., Gambosi, G. (eds.) CIAC 2000. LNCS, vol. 1767, pp. 125–133. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ascheuer, N., Krumke, S.O., Rambau, J.: Online dial-a-ride problems: Minimizing the completion time. In: Reichel, H., Tison, S. (eds.) STACS 2000. LNCS, vol. 1770, pp. 639–650. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grotschel, M., Krumke, S.O., Rambau, J.: Online optimization of complex transportation systems (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Horn, M.E.T.: Multi-modal and demand-responsive passenger transport systems: a modelling framework with embedded control systems. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 36, 167–188 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haghani, A., Banihashemi, M.: Heuristic approaches for solving large-scale bus transit vehicle scheduling problem with route time constraints. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 36, 309–333 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lipmann, M., Lu, X., de Paepe, W.E., Sitters, R.A., Stougie, L.: On-line dial-aride problems under a restricted information model. In: Möhring, R.H., Raman, R. (eds.) ESA 2002. LNCS, vol. 2461, pp. 674–685. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kousuke Shinoda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Itsuki Noda
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Masayuki Ohta
    • 1
  • Yoichiro Kumada
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hideyuki Nakashima
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cyber Assist Research CenterAISTTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Japan Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyNomi IshikawaJapan
  3. 3.Japan Science and Technology CorporationPRESTO 

Personalised recommendations